Monday, July 22, 2019

Book Banning Essay Example for Free

Book Banning Essay Each year, libraries across the United States report hundreds of challenges. The leading causes for contesting a book are sexually explicit content, offensive language and inappropriate subjects for minors [source: American Library Association]. Only a minority of the requests actually make it through to banning the book from its respective library. The Catcher in the Rye. The Scarlet Letter. Huckleberry Finn. Harry Potter. The Diary of Anne Frank. Animal Farm. To Kill a Mockingbird. The Da Vinci Code. The Grapes of Wrath. These literary classics have been vital to the education of many, especially children and adolescents. These great novels both teach important values and educate children about world affairs and classic themes. Unfortunately, each of these novels has been banned at one point in time. Many of these classic stories have been banned because of sexual references, racial slurs, religious intolerance, or supposed witchcraft promotion. Although some may consider these books controversial or inappropriate, many English classes have required us to read these books. Like the teachers that assigned us these books, I believe that even controversial books can ultimately boost, not deter, our educational wealth. I oppose book banning for three main reasons. First, I believe that education should be open to everyone. Everyone should have an opportunity to read any literature of their choosing and form his or her own opinions based on the reading. Micah Issitt lists three basic rights covered under the freedom of the press: the right to publish, the right to confidentiality of sources, and the right of citizens to access the products of the press. My second reason specifically addresses the last right stating that citizens should have access to the press. The government should not restrict books from being published or interfere into personal affairs as this is an infringement of the First Amendment. Finally, I believe that parents should monitor what their own children read, but not have the authority to ban other children from reading these novels. For these reasons, I conclude that the government should play no role in the issue what citizens do and do not read, and that book restriction should remain a solely private matter. At first glance, the debate over banning books appears unimportant. Nevertheless, this debate has divided our nation into those who favor censoring books to protect their impressionable adolescents, and those who argue that education should be open for everybody without interference from the government in restricting the publishing and accessing of these books. Issitt argues that censoring books violates the First Amendment, stating that citizens must be free to seek out any media, regardless of content, that they deem appropriate for entertainment, information, or education. Denying the rights of the consumer, in any area, is one of the hallmarks of authoritarianism. While I do not equate banning books with authoritarianism, we do endorse Issitts belief that individual citizens have the right to choose, under their own discretion, what books to read. The First Amendment protects the freedom of expression and speech, and by prohibiting certain messages, the government clearly infringes upon public rights. On the other hand, Healey claims that censorship does not repress information that teenagers and children are exposed to, but merely gives parents the rights to educate their children in the ways they deem appropriate. Though I concede that parents do have the right to monitor what their children read, they do not have the right to remove books from public libraries or monitor what other children in the city read. Healey attempts to persuade readers that censorship of books should not be about silencing voices on important topics, but about steering young people toward the best possible literature; however, she fails to specify what constitutes as the best possible literature. Some of the best possible literatures† also happen to cause the most controversy, including Huck Finn, Harry Potter, The Scarlet Letter, and To Kill a Mockingbird. Those who protest against these books have clearly not studied them in depth. For example, the main theme in Huckleberry Finn focuses not on advocating racism, as some suggest, but proving that race does not define a persons intelligence or capability for compassion. Even Healey admits that concerned parents and community members react without taking the time to closely investigate the books they want banned. While I agree that parents should play an active role in educating their children and as their primary guardians, have the legal right to monitor what their children read, I disagree that this legal right extends to controlling what other children in the neighborhood read as well. Prohibiting children from reading a book will not enhance their moral values. Rather, banning a book more likely will increase curiosity for reading it. I also empathize with parents who ban books with controversial or uncomfortable subjects because they are unsure as to how their children will react or how to explain such topics. A good way to discuss these subjects with children is to read books with various views on the subject so that children can experience multiple points of view before forming their own opinions. Healey herself agrees that such a method might help young people better understand the world they live in, the human condition, and issues they face in their culture. As Healey stated, parents also tend to ban books based on moral grounds, although some books have been condemned for their perspectives on civic values and history. For this very reason, the general public should read these books. Our society, especially our younger children, needs to read these books since fully understanding a topic requires knowledge of both sides. If we choose to disregard even a highly unpopular opinion, we intentionally choose to live in ignorance, only partially educated in a topic we claim to know so well. Without a doubt, if we continue to ban books and ignore what some consider taboo topics, we hinder ourselves and our children from finding ways to solve societys problems, thus hampering the development of our nation as a whole. Many conservative groups make the argument that the books that have been banned have material that is inappropriate, immoral or contradicting the beliefs they have ingrained in their children and/or their society. Take for consideration the controversial books that tackle difficult, touchy social issues like homosexuality. Books like Heather Has Two Mommies, by Leslea Newman and Daddys Roommate by Michael Willhoite (both books written for youth with gay parents) were shot down by conservative groups because they attempted to educate children about homosexuality, an issue parents felt needed to be taught to their respective children by them. While this may seem like a valid argument, really it is just skirting around the actual issue. Book-banning cases usually concern the protection of children and their innocence, but all that is happening is sheltering parents showing an awkward avoidance of their childrens confrontation with uncomfortable matters. It is not only selfish, but also harmful to the overall education of their children. This act of prohibiting books is just the parents’ way of evading of the conversation with their child about these sensitive issues. These two books are issues that Healey brings up in her argument on how groups were upset about the way these books informed their children of homosexuality. Homosexuality and other touchy social issues are part of everyday life, and for a group to attempt to censor this subject from younger society is almost absurd; these issues are not monstrous and the censorship of them not only shows prejudice but lack of respect. Banning books seems to be the most public solution for a private matter- not everyone should have to suffer restrictions because one group feels uncomfortable with the book. That being said, there are often books that contain graphic and often highly inappropriate material; I do consent that these books should be censored at the discretion of the parent, or anyone involved however, no one is forcing books upon others, so we should not be forced to remove them. Other groups would say that its also the duty of the government to regulate these books to protect concerned citizens and their families, but I would have to disagree. Its the exact opposite of the governments role- our private lives, the books we read, should be regulated and controlled by us. Banning books from public congregations is not what the government was intended to do. Topics that seem socially outlawed in public, let alone published, have been banned because their immoral content may have a negative effect on younger children. In these books, authors doesnt promote or encourage bad behaviors, they prepare their readers for some of the real world challenges. The child would never be able to learn these things if the book was banned, nor be able to form his or her own opinion about that certain topic. Healey discusses that the book, 33 Snowfish, a dark story of three teenage runaways who are victims of various forms of abuse by Adam Rapp may be an unsuitable way to educate children on these timely topics. However, having these stories banned all together would just further shelter a child whose parents may not be willing to discuss these issues with them at all. Even though these books center around scary topics, they are educating children on real life matters that they will be exposed to once they venture into the world themselves. Healey goes on to make the point that the books should not be banned as well, since it is a matter of private opinion not one to be made by the public libraries of a community. She suggests that schools should inform parents about the kinds of books they offer children in their libraries and classrooms instead of banning them. With the knowledge that some of these books have to offer, children can learn how not to act and what can be the consequences if they do misbehave. This learning experience could turn around with the help of a parent and pass a positive affect over the child. Clearly, banning books not only hinders a childs educational development but also leaves them unaware of the true state of the world. Books do not simply impart general information; they heavily influence a child, the future generation. Without regular access to books, both adults and children could not form sound opinions, only narrow-minded ones. Both advocates and opposers of book banning agree that books are powerful instruments. Otherwise, a debate on the subject would neither have arisen nor lasted so long. Because books can be used to inculcate values and transmit ideology, and to stimulate the imagination, as Healey suggests, any person should remain free to select his or her reading material. This personal issue of selecting reading material has no relation to the government. On the contrary, government action interferes with individual education, a primary American value. Ultimately, children can learn personal responsibility in determining which books to regard and which to discard. In the future, these children will become well-educated adults who can benefit the American society. -

Does Bureaucracy Remains The Essential Core of Public Administration in The Practice of New Public Management?

Does Bureaucracy Remains The Essential Core of Public Administration in The Practice of New Public Management? Introduction The changing role on how the government should act in order to improve and guarantee an adequate public service delivery has come to an era where the concept of New Public Management (NPM) is introduced to replace the practice of so called ‘red tape bureaucracy. The concept suggests new management techniques and practices that involving market type mechanisms related to private sector practices in order to bring changes to the management of government in making public service delivery. The reforms try to redefine the role and character of government institutions to be more market and private sector oriented. The reform efforts have been commenced first by developed countries from the late 1970s to the 1980s, and then followed by developing and transitional countries in recent years (Larbi, 2006). The economic crisis in developed countries led to the search of new ways in managing and delivering public services and redefining the states role. Similar thing also occurred to developing countries that was experiencing economic and fiscal crisis that led to the rethinking of state-led development that involving bigger size, functions, and the cost of state and its bureaucracy. The idea is how to strongly endorse the market and competition to the private and voluntary sectors and leaving the practice of strong state where everything is controlled and done by the state. However, the idea of NPM has raise a question of whether bureaucracy should still exist or, even more, would still be the essential core element of public administration. The paper will discuss about this question and find out what would be the answer. The outline of this paper will firstly discuss about the essence of bureaucracy in the practice of public administration. Afterward, it will introduce what and how does the NPM works in the practice of organising and managing public service. Finally, this paper will analyse whether bureaucracy would still be the essential core of public administration although NPM is being implemented. What Is Bureaucracy? Common citizens might just think that bureaucracy is a burden in public administration because of its inefficiency, long chain of decision making, self interest, and other bothersome reason that makes it undesirable form of administration. In the United States, public bureaucracy has gain wide scepticism and reached a high point as a major theme in the Reagan administration. The president contempt on bureaucracy was supported by public opinion polls, which had been detecting a widespread conviction that the government is wasteful and ineffective, and much of the concern aimed on public agencies and their employees as the major part of the problem (Milward and Rainey, 1983). On the contrary, there are also views that think bureaucracy in more positive term with their own evidence. For instance, merit based bureaucracy can fosters economic growth in developing countries (Evans and Rauch, 1999). It can also contribute to the effort of poverty reduction (Henderson et al, 2003). Furthermore, bureaucratic rules are considered to have a contribution in promoting democratic equality because those rules do not make differentiation of wealth and other resources among citizens that they serve. These two standpoints, negative and positive, about bureaucracy forced us to understand more about the substance of the so called â€Å"Weberian† state structures. In the view of public administration, bureaucracy means much more than those negative characteristics mentioned above because the term â€Å"bureaucracy† in serious administrative literature mentioning a general, formal structure elements of organisation, particularly government organisation (Stillman, 2000). The most comprehensive, classic formulation of the characteristics of bureaucracy was generally acknowledged as the work of a German scientist, Max Weber. He pioneered the term â€Å"bureaucracy† by saying that â€Å"bureaucracy is the normal way that legal rational authority appears in institutional form, it holds a central role in ordering and controlling modern society, also it is superior to any other form in precision, in stability, in stringency of its discipline and in its reliability†. Weber thought that bureaucracy is indispensable to maintaining civilisation in modern society. He suggested that although a lot of people are saying about the negativ e views of bureaucracy, it would be impossible to think that administrative work can be carried out in any field without the existence of officials working in offices. Weber noted three of the most important major elements of the formal structure of bureaucracy, which are the division of labour, hierarchical order, and impersonal rules. Firstly, specialisation of labour means that all work in bureaucracy should be divided into units that will be done individuals or groups of individuals that has competency in accomplishing those tasks. In other words, the specialisation of labour brings out the idea of professionalism in administrative bureaucracy. Secondly, the hierarchical order in bureaucracy that is meant to separate superiors from sub ordinates in order to recognised different authority, responsibility, and privileges. It also meant as a base for remuneration of employees and a structure that will enable a system of promotion to the employees. Thirdly, impersonal rules that form the means of a bureaucratic world. It limits the bureaucrats in any opportunities for arbitrariness and personal favouritism because their choices are restrained by l egal bureaucratic rules that provide systematic controls of sub ordinates by superiors. Those major elements of bureaucracy derived from what is known as The Weberian ideal type, which suggested four revolutional thinking in public administration. First is the concept of recruitment for the officials which is not supposed to be based on personal relationship but more to a merit based recruitment. Second is the point of view that servants should give their loyalty to the community not to individuals or groups. Third is the mentality aspect of the servants where they are pressured in improving public welfare so they have to eliminate the practice that give opportunity for rent seeking and fraud, which will inflict the public welfare. Last concept of ideal type is that employment should be subject to job performance not on political support. The Concept of New Public Management New initiatives introduce new management technique, which include not only structural changes but also attempts to change both process and roles of public sector management. Wide drafts of initiative and change processes in the UK public services have taken place since the 1980s (Ashburner et al, 1994). Furthermore, a survey conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in early 1990s has concluded that new management techniques and practices that involving market type mechanisms associated with the private for profit sector would bring changes in countries public management that have wide governance, economic and institutional environments (OECD, 1993a). Those technique and practice changes have then being labelled as the New Public Management (NPM) or the new managerialism (Ferlie et al, 1996). The search for new management technique in public sector administration was initially forced by some occurrence that happened worldwide. The first wave for reforms came up as a result of economic and fiscal crisis, political change, and criticism on over extension of the state. The next wave for reforms were mainly because of the role of donors, improvement in information technology, and pressures of globalisation that strongly promoted competition among countries. Nevertheless, the concept of NPM still need to be clearly defined of what the new public management actually is, what made it distinct to be said of moving away from traditional public administration. The attempts to overview what kind of practice should be done in implementing NPM noted that there are at least four new public management models (Ferlie et al, 1996) that can distinguish it with the traditional public administration. The models meant to be the initial attempt to build the typology of new public management ideal types. The first model is The Efficiency Drive that known as the earliest model to emerge. It represented a model that tried to make public sector more like businesses, which is led by high importance of efficiency. It increased attention to financial control, extension of audit, deregulation of the labour market, empowerment of less bureaucratic and more entrepreneurial management, and a greater role for non public sector providers. This first model of NPM sees public sector as a problem not solution because it was wasteful, over bureaucratic, and underperformed. The second model is Downsizing and Decentralisation on the management of public sector organisations. This model implemented some general organisational change, which include staff downsizing, increased contracting out, and increased decentralisation strategy. The model tried to represent public sector in facing issues about their replacement with the market. The third one called In Search of Excellence that had strong highlight on organisational culture. It define NPM as techniques and practices in shaping public sector organisational culture by promoting and forming values, rites, and symbols to show people how to behave at work. The fourth and last model called Public Service Orientation. This model tried to combine private and public sector management ideas by adopting private sector practices. It takes ideas from the private sector to be applied in the public sector organisation. The rise of Total Quality Management in order to achieve excellence in public service deliveries can be noted as one of the implementation for this model. Overall, there seems to be only two core elements that exist in the concept of NPM. The first one is managerialism and the other one is marketisation and competition (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992). Managerialism includes the practice of decentralisation of authority, devolving budget and financial control, delayering and downsizing public sector organisations, implementing performance management, and forming executive agencies to do specific tasks in public services. While marketisation and competition stressed on the practice of contracting out, charging for public services, focusing on quality, and changing employment relationship. Larbi (2006) also mentioned those two core elements in a detailed table, which is also adapted from Hood (1991). However, the market type mechanisms associated with private for profit sector, which is the life blood of NPM, also have a challenge to answer that what if the market fails. It comes to another perspective of NPM in anticipating market failure, which is regulating. The idea is quite paradox because if we discuss about new public management reform, usually it will talk about de-regulation and not re-regulation, but the state has to face the reality that the market will not always succeed. This where regulation is meant to, being an instrument to impose outcomes which would not be reached by the operation of free market forces and private legal rights (Ogus, 1994). Regulation meant to make the market works more efficient or make the monopoly provider to operate as if there were a competition. Nevertheless, the practice of how to regulate has also been an interesting topic of whether in the form of state control or on the basis of giving incentives. Where Bureaucracy Stands In the New Public Management? After reviewing the definition of bureaucracy and the practice of new public management, we have to answer two questions that arise in the beginning of this paper. The first question is whether bureaucracy would still exist in the implementation of NPM or otherwise should be abolish at all. The second question, as continuation from the first one if the result is yes, where does it stand in the NPM, would it supposed to be the core elements too? The answer for the first question supposed to be yes, bureaucracy would still exists despite the emerging implementation on New Public Management. There are at least two reasons that can explain why bureaucracy will still exist. First of all, Weber suggested that bureaucracy can serve any master. This is in the meaning of whatever the form of a government, whether it is an authoritarian or democratic, bureaucracy would still be relevant. The facts that can be seen as evidence is what happened around the mid-1990s where ideas derived from neo-liberal economics began to falter as policy guides to economic development. A number of processes and events were responsible for this. The World Bank (1993, 1997) finally began to recognize the positive role that states could play. It became clear that the concept of the minimal state had theoretical flaws and led to policies that could be shattering for growth, most visibly in Eastern Europe (Henderson, 1998). Nevertheless, the Washington Cons ensus came under pressure as a consequence of inappropriate policy responses to the East Asian economic crisis (Chang, 2001). The recent writing by Chang (2002) revealed that the now developed world, including its most neo-liberal exponents, Britain and the United States did not pursue free market policies as their roads to riches, seems destined to advance this process. The second reason is the Weberian perspective actually does not negate the positive effects of strengthening market institutions, but it does postulate that bureaucratically structured public organizations, using their own distinct set of decision making procedures, are a necessary complement to market based institutional arrangements (Evans and Rauch, 1999). Then the second question, what about its significance in the NPM. More precisely, would it still be the core element in the practice of NPM. There are some arguments that we can use to answer this question. As noted before, Weber argued that public administrative organisations, which are characterised by meritocratic recruitment and a predictable long term career rewards, will be more effective at facilitating capitalist growth than other forms of state organisation. This hypothesis certainly cannot be dismissed just because of the fact that people who call themselves bureaucrats have engaged in rent seeking and fraud activity, or that corrupt governments have undermined economic growth (Evans and Rauch, 1999). Henderson et al (2003) explained in their paper that meritocratic recruitment can be expected to lead to organisational effectiveness because of several reasons. Firstly, it can ensures that staff has, at the very least, a minimal level of competency to fulfil job requirements. Secondly, it tends to encourage organisational coherence and an organisational spirit, where it is expected that this will eventually help to raise the motivation of staff. Finally, higher levels of identification with colleagues and the organisation help to raise the levels of shared norms and increase the intangible costs of engaging in corrupt practices. Moreover, bureaucracies that offer rewarding long term careers have greater possibility to perform well because it encourages more competent people to join the organisation, which, in turn, further increases organisational coherence and makes attempts to conduct corrupt practices by individuals will be less attractive because the costs of being found out ar e very high. Another argument comes from an empirical study, which is written by Evans and Rauch (1999), to test the significant correlation between bureaucratic effects of the Weberian State Structure with economic growth. Evans and Rauch constructed a â€Å"Weberianness Scale† that tried to measure the degree to which core state agencies in various countries were characterised by meritocratic recruitment and offered rewarding long term careers. After that, they compute the scores on the scale for 35 semi industrial and poor countries. Then, they analysed the correlation of these scores to the total growth of real GDP per capita in those countries from 1970 to 1990, and found out that there is a strong and significant correlation between the â€Å"Weberianness Scale† score and economic growth on those respective countries. Furthermore, they also analysed and concluded that the East Asian countries, which have higher â€Å"Weberianness Scale† score and economic growth than A frican countries, has demonstrated a high performing key institutional element of the scale that resulted in economic growth. Almost similar arguments also came from James Tobin, the winner of Nobel Prize for Economics in 1981. He observed that the rapid growth of the public sector in the United States had actually accompanied the greatest economic advances of any country in history, and that he knows of no evidence that government spending and growth are responsible for current economic difficulties. These arguments should at least give us a hint that bureaucracy would remains to be the core element in public administration. Conclusion Critiques about inefficient, red tape, and waste bureaucracy has raise an idea to abolish and make it as minimum as it can in order to provide and improve public welfare. This has lead to the concept of making business-like public sector, where it is assumed that the practice will bring goodness to public welfare. However, it has been revealed that the oversimplified calls on business-like public sector, which impose free market approach, have eventually being falter. This has made some modification on the practice of New Public Management. Some arguments have shown that bureaucracy should remains as the core element in the practice of NPM. It is required not just to anticipate market failures but also to make sure that the market, especially for monopolistic public service, would feel that there is a competition, through establishing sets of regulations. Moreover, empirical study has proved that the role of bureaucracy is actually significant for the economic growth. Thus, there are strong reasons not just to put bureaucracy in the practice of NPM, but also make it as an essential part of the New Public Management.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

History Of What Is Crime Criminology Essay

History Of What Is Crime Criminology Essay What is crime. Many people when asked this question assume its a common sense answer, something that is seemed wrong or illegal and results in punishment of some form. However there is no simple answer to this question. According to the Oxford dictionary crime is defined as an action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law, therefore in its simplest form crime is a punishable act of which breaks the rules of the law. However the concept of crime is surrounded by constantly changing ideas and perceptions of what constitutes criminal behaviour. Crime is always socially defined leading to competing views and extensive debate. In this essay I will be focusing on defining crime in terms of legal definitions and also defining crimes in terms of sociological definitions, which can be argued to be the main to focuses when attempting to answer this question. Blackburn (1993) defines crime as acts attracting legal punishment, [they] are offences against the community. Crimes result with consequences that are damaging in some way to the community or one of more people within it. These consequences can range from trivial to severe. Blackburn recognizes that crimes are, in theory, generally disapproved by the entire of society as they often involve violating moral rules held by those members of society, he also notes some of the difficulties and limitations of this way of defining crime. For example, personal opinion will impact the definition of crime. Not all crimes are disapproved by all people, e.g. speeding. This is a criminal act but does not have a wide-spread social disapproval. Secondly, whilst the vast majority of criminal acts such as murder violate societies moral rules, acts that are part of a bigger picture do not such as possession of a banned drug for personal use, these crimes can be termed victimless crimes. These crimes ar e illegal in the UK but there is not a clear understanding of which, if any, moral codes they violate. This leads me on to the question of whether crime, although its primarily defined by the law, is it not also based on social and cultural factors (social and cultural norms and values)? In our society it is the legal system that defines which acts are criminal and which are not. A crime cannot be committed unless the act violates the law. In the UK the legal system follows a tradition of a crime has not been committed unless there is a guilty act, an act that is voluntarily carried out with a guilty mind and an intention to commit the act. Therefore in theory if the act has not been intentionally chosen then it is not a crime. It can be argued that there is an assumption that criminal acts are systematically arranged in law; the law has been created, policed and enforced by the UK state. Crime in terms of the legal system is acts which break the law of the land, as demonstrated by the Oxford English Dictionary definition. The legal definition of crime is a very weighted argument, however many also argue that in order to define crime we rely on existing social and cultural norms which are accepted in society. The definition of crime is dependent on it as it effects our own interpretation of what crime is. Social and cultural factors are constantly evolving and changing. They are not static and this therefore makes them susceptible to changes which inevitably affect the definition of crime. For example, the 1604 Witchcraft Act. This law stated that those who had been accused of witchcraft were burnt at the stake if the cases were petty treason, however with the majority of cases resulting in hanging or a year in prison if the individual committed only a minor offence. This act was repealed in 1951 in Britain. However, a clear example of how social and cultural factors impact the law is the fact that in Africa, the witchcraft ban in Zimbabwe only ended in 2006. Therefore, on the one hand crimes are acts that break the law, and on the other, they are acts which can offend against a set of norms like a moral code, this is also known as the normative definition of crime. Cultures change and the political environment changes with that which means societies may criminalise or decriminalise certain behaviours. This will also have an impact on crime rates which will then also inevitably influence the general public opinion of crime. In the UK rape is a definite Invasion of our social norms, values and rights as an individual. Rape is not accepted in any case. However in South Africa a survey by CIET found that 60% of both boys and girls, aged 10 to 19 years old, thought it was not violent to force sex upon someone they knew, while around 11% of boys and 4% of girls admitted to forcing someone else to have sex with them. The study also found that 12.7% of the students believed in the virgin cleansing myth (an HIV/AIDS positive male believing that having sex with a virgin girl will cure him of his disease). In the culture these children have been socialised into, these are their own social norms and opinions that are accepted in their society, in the UK and in fact in the majority of other countries and cultures around the world this behaviour would be seen as illegal, horrific and completely wrong. A final impact on our norms and behaviour is religious traditions that may promote these norms. The may, in turn clash or fit with perceived interests of a state. Many socially accepted or even imposed religious morality has influences on issues that may otherwise only have concerned each individuals conscience. There are many activities that are sometimes criminalized on religious grounds, for example alcohol-consumption and abortion. However although these may be beliefs of certain religious followers, in societies where religion has less power and impact on the legal system both these acts are legal and widely accepted. So what a crime is depends on whether you view it from a legal or a normative perspective. There is no simple, fixed, objective definition of crime it is not a simple matter. Crimes are defined by societies and by culture and the time that we live in. For example, it would not have been a crime one hundred years ago to not pay your TV licence in the UK, because there was no TV. In Victorian pharmacies, cocaine was sold, but today this would be considered illegal in most countries. So what we view as a crime depends on how crime is viewed, time, particular society and the culture. Society is constantly evolving and changing along with social values, beliefs and norms. This process will inevitably have an impact on what constitutes a crime and how crime is in general defined. Although there are many problems with defining crime, this shouldnt overshadow the fact that the purpose of the law to reinforce the punishment of crime is clear, it is there to protect the public, this could in i tself contribute to defining crime.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Crime and Punishment :: essays research papers fc

The Websters Dictionary defines degradation as a fall from higher to lower rank or degree(Websters, 205). Fyodor Dostoyevsky illustrates degradation of morals for several characters in Crime and Punishment. He links the quality of money or lack thereof to the their moral degradation to design complex characters. Dostoyevsky draws a picture of society that is similar to the society depicted in Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables. The poor become greedy and the rich become greedier. And, good moral decision making can be greatly overpowered by the need or want of more money.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The degradation of society and lack of money cause Raskolnikov to kill the greedy pawnbroker, Alyona Ivanovna and her sister Lizaveta. Raskolnikov believes that killing them for their money will be a great conquest for himself and society. After fighting with himself about whether or not he should commit the crime, he overhears someone talking about the same plan.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hundreds, perhaps thousands of lives could be put on the right path, dozens of   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  families rescued from poverty, from ruin, from collapse, from decay, from venereal   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  wards of the hospitals-- all this with her money! Kill her, take her money, dedicate   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  it to serving mankind, to the general welfare. Well --what do you think -- isn’t   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  this petty little crime effaced by thousands of good deeds? (63, part 1) Raskolnikov decides he must go against his good judgment and commit murder for the good of society and himself.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Dostoyevsky also takes the character of Raskolnikov to the opposite extreme. After his mother sends him money, he uses it to help out the Marmeladov family in an act of pure charity. He comes across Marmeladov injured by a carriage and without hesitation offers to help.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I know him!† and he pushed all the way forward. â€Å"It’s the clerk, the retired titular   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  councilor, Marmeladov! He lives near here, in Kozel’s house....Somebody get a   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  doctor! I’ll pay. Here!† he fished money out of his pocket and showed it to the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  policeman. (170, part 2) Dostoyevsky is showing how Raskolnikov’s decision making is effected by money or lack thereof.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Svidrigailov is a character who was poor and in jail. He was bought by Marfa Perovna and lived a good life off of her money. Unlike Raskolnikov, Svidrigailov’s moral degradation becomes worse with his increase of wealth. He cheats on his wife, causing her to eventually kill herself, and gets a fifteen year old pregnant. He then admits to Raskolnikov that he was in love with his sister, Dunya, but now just wants to sleep with her. â€Å"Secondly, I fancy you won’t refuse me a little help in a certain project of mine that

Friday, July 19, 2019

Censorship Essay -- essays research papers

Censorship Without the history of Censorship, what type of things would children be watching? Without the unique methods of Censorship, what kinds of films would be being released into the public? Throughout this essay I will be explaining the steps taken to achieve the level of Censorship, that we have now.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 1900-1950 every movie in the world was rated before being released. The government, of the country in which the movie was made always did this. In 1956 the rules were changed. Each movie’s script was now required to go before a Film Board, before being produced. If approved the company was allowed to go on with production. In 1968 the Film Board of the Motion Picture Association of America adopted a new classification system. Instead of the scripts being read, the movies were made, rated by the Board and then put into a category. In 1968 the motion Pictures Association, the National Association of Theater Owners, and the International Film importers all gathered for a meeting about an organization called CARA (classification and rating administration). The main objective of this organization was to educate parents on the films and television that their children watch. This rarely changed any movies or television shows it just put an age limit on the people to be able to wat ch them. Anyone over seventeen years of age was allowed to watch anything they chose.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There were four categories: 1. G-General 2. PG...

The Nature of Adolescence, by John C. Coleman and Leo B. Hendry Essay

There have been many scientists and philosophers that have put forth information about the stages that humans go through in life. One of these representations is put forth by Erikson, in the book The Nature of Adolescence, by John C. Coleman and Leo B. Hendry. This theory has four steps; 1. The problem of intimacy, 2. A diffusion of time perspective, or the problems of focusing on the future, 3. Diffusion of industry or the difficulty of focusing on studies, and finally 4. Negative identity or the "rebellious" stage. These stages are not purely involved in the teenage years of a person’s life, as they can go through and possibly stay at these stages throughout their entire life. Rebecca Fraser-Thill defines it as, "Identity diffusion is one step in the process of finding a sense of self. It refers to a period when an individual does not have an established identity, nor is actively searching for one. In other words, it's a time when a person's identity remains unresolved, yet there is no identity crisis" (Thill). In the novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, each of these stages can be seen as the novel progresses. An analysis of the stages of development as stated by Erikson, in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and in my own life is needed. Intimacy problems can be seen in the early stages of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man when Stephen, the protagonist of the novel, has multiple sexual escapades with prostitutes. James Joyce tells of this, saying, "It was too much for him. He closed his eyes, surrendering himself to her, body and mind, conscious of nothing in the world but the dark pressure of her softly parting lips."(Joyce, Chapter 2, Section 5). This shows his reluctance to commit to a... ...in the world. Many people either do not progress, getting stuck on one level or another, or they regress back to stages that they have already surpassed. There are definitely problems in everybody’s life but the best thing to do is learn from them. These stages are not set in stone and there is no way to fully know what happens in a person's mind. Works Cited About. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2014. . Coleman, John C., and Leo B. Hendry. The Nature of Adolescence. N.p.: Metheun and Co., 1980. Print. Erikson, Erik H. Identity: Youth and Crisis. N.p.: W.W. Norton and Company, 1968. Print. Melges, Frederick T. "Identity and Temporal Perspective." Cognitive Models of Psychological Time. Ed. Richard A. Block. N.p.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990. 255-67. Print. SimplyPsychology. N.p., n.d.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Macbeth †Study Guide †Act I Essay

1.Why is Scotland at war at the opening of the play? Scotland is at war at the opening of the play because Mackdonwald, a rebel, was trying to overthrow Duncan and make a deal with the King of Norway. 2.What three predictions do the witches make in Scene 3? -Macbeth will be Thane of Glamis -He will be Thane of Cawdor -He will be King of Scotland. 3.Who is named heir to the Scottish throne? Malcom is named heir to the Scottish throne since he is King Duncan’s oldest son. 4.What is the â€Å"double trust† that makes Macbeth hesitate to kill Duncan? In Macbeth’s first soliloquy, he expresses his doubts about murdering the king. Among the reasons he should not kill the king are his â€Å"double bond† as kinsman (countryman) and subject, which should make him oppose the deed he is contemplating. 5.How do the murderers plan to implicate Duncan’s grooms? They will smear the blood of Duncan on the sleeping chamberlains to cast the guilt upon them. 6.What atmosphere and tone are created in the short opening scene? Macbeth opens with a scene which creates an atmosphere of foreboding and introduces the evil powers which are about to tempt Macbeth to his ruin. The tone of this scene is evil and intimidating. 7.When we are first introduced to Macbeth by the nobleman to Duncan, what is the reader’s initial impression? The reader’s initial impression when we are first introduced to Macbeth by the nobleman to Duncan, is a good one regarding Macbeth. Duncan and the nobleman make us picture Macbeth as a brave, victorious general who knew what to do and who saved Scotland from losing the battle. Macbeth seems loyal to his King, Duncan! 8.In what ways is Banquo â€Å"lesser than Macbeth, and greater†? Banquo is lesser than Macbeth meaning potentially since Macbeth is the King and has more power, but he (Banquo) is greater than Macbeth, not as happy as him, yet happier! 9.What impression do you form of Lady Macbeth Act I? Lady Macbeth has a passion of ambition. Her disposition is high, proud, and commanding. We observe in her no love of country, and no interest in the welfare of anyone outside her family. Her habitual thoughts and aims are, and, we imagine, long have been, all of station and power. She supports and loves Macbeth but does not overshadow her husband. 10.How is Macbeth feeling in his soliloquy in the beginning of Scene 7? What is his state of mind? Macbeth’s soliloquy shows that he shrinks from the murder of Duncan; his wife, however, forces him into action with her taunt that he is a coward. His fear foreshadows the way that his deeds will eventually come back to haunt him. 11.Shakespeare ends Act One with Macbeth and Lady Macbeth plotting the murder of Duncan. a.How exactly do they plan to kill him? While Duncan sleeps, she will give his chamberlains wine to make them drunk, and then she and Macbeth can slip in and murder Duncan. b.What is the dramatic effect of concluding the act by letting us see the murder plot as it crystallizes? Will he or won’t he? Audience is kept in a state of dramatic tension and suspense†¦