Thursday, February 28, 2019

Communication Case Essay

converse allows ideas to be conveyed clearly and succinctly. dialogue is crucial for developing positive kinships with children, unripened population and their families, colleagues and other professionals We communicate to express our emotions like courage or fear, joy or sorrow, satisfaction or disappointment with appropriate gestures and words. Communication is vital for seeking and providing information. AiiDescribe TWO ways how impelling parley displace affect relationships in an adult neighborly give cargon setting among individuals exploitation the help, their c atomic number 18rs, colleagues and other practitioners.1. Effective dialogue is the basis of all relationship regardless of whether the relationship is professional or mortalal. It is consequential as it helps to debate concise and clear information and eliminate the possibility of risks to affected roles. 2. Also with strong communication in that location would be a positive atmosphere within the w ork place and colleagues would be more willing to help each(prenominal) other out. Staff would know where everything is and also offer extra stand out with your workload. AiiiIdentify THREE ways of finding out the communication and terminology inevitably of an individual. For each regularity, describe how strong it is at establishing the needs of the individual. MethodHow effective this method is?Looking through previous recordsPrevious records can determine the individuals illness or disability and what kind of sponsor they will need to establish communication and language needs. observationObservation is effective as it is establishing the communication and language by watching/ public lecture to the patient themselves. Communication with family/other professionalsFamily, friends and other professional who nourish worked/ stand upd with the patient will have a lot on information/ fellowship on the patient. They would have developed ways of dealing with the patients commu nication and language over a long time.AivDescribe THREE factors to reckon when promoting effective communication.Disabilities Disabilities such as hearing loss, impaired vision, mobility problems or livery impairment can affect the effective communication. Proper communication method should be known before communicating the people with disability or different health issues.Cultural Differences Communication differences can result from differences in culture. In some cultures, children are not allowed to come up to in bird-scarer of adult and some kind of body gesture, eye contact, facial boldness and touch are inappropriate. Environment Environment is one of the most important factors to consider. Ensure the lights, air, temperature, noise and that it is safe and comfortable for the patient before establishing effective communication. AvDescribe THREE verbal and THREE non-verbal communication methods and styles that a social care worker may use in an adult setting. literalNo n VerbalSpoken When people speak face-to-face or via the phone its considered verbal communicationBody language/Body movements Body movements complicate gestures, posture, head and hand movements or whole body movementsWritten composition is considered a form of verbal communication because words are involved. bosom contact It is important to give eye contact as it helps the person know that you are listeningNon-spoken A person doesnt have to speak words for a communication to be considered verbal. A moan can qualify. In fact, any noises or utterances a person makes are included in this classification.Posture Posture can reflect peoples emotions, attitudes and intentions.Avi Explain why it is important to respond to an individuals reactions during communication. It is important to respond to an individuals reactions during communication because it shows you are actively taking part in a conversation. It also shows that you are listening. With no listening there really isnt a conversation happening. If you are listening passively, then you are giving little or no feedback. If you are like this, then you are unlikely to make pertinacious responses. Avii Explain how an individuals background can influence their communication methods. An individuals background can influence their communication methods by the way in which they are brought up and the society and culture that they live in has a great effect on the way in which they communicate.In some cultures children are not allowed to speak in the aim of certain adults. Some people may have been brought up in a background of challenging environments. Some women do not speak in front of other men out of family. These factors will super influence the way they communicate and to establish communication with these groups of people. Also there may be a language barrier which would influence communication methods. Aviii Identify three examples of barriers to communication and explain how you could overcome e ach barrier. parapetHow it can over comeLanguage differencesYou can overcome this by identifying the preferred communication method and using the appropriate method to communicate. enculturation differencesYou can overcome this by providing an interpreter or translator service. use makaton, body language and pictures etc.Physical BarrierYou could overcome this by checking the individuals record, speaking to a family member or friends or through the countrys cultural representative.Aix Describe 2 strategies that you could use to clarify mis escortings. 1. Be polite and ask kindly in a calm professional manner.2. Writing instructions clearly and concisely. postulate the them to repeat what I have said to ensure clear understanding.AxA social care worker wants to enable more effective communication with individuals using the service. Explain how they could access extra aliveness or services that may be helpful. Translation services This service can help with changing the written text from one language to another. Interpreting services This service can help with converting spoken language to another language. Speech and language services This service can support people who have had a stroke and have problems with their speech. Advocacy services This service can support people who are unable to speak up for themselves. This service tries to understand the needs, wishes and preferences of people, and will argue on their behalf.

Apple Inc: Analysis of Financial Statement Essay

I chose Apple for my stock externalise chief(prenominal)ly base on the fact that they release exclusively their records to the public and they cook excellent accounting practices. Their paper work is promiscuous to read and follow and based on their records they have an endless follow of revenue in the wagions. As we have discussed about Apple in class I was very intrigued how they looked in the books on a special level of detail and this course project was the perfect way to fruit initiative to find out just how their numbers actually re matche up answering the interest questions.1. What amount of deferred revenue assets or deferred taxation liabilities be on the two most recent old age on the balance flat solid? What gives rise to these deferred taxes? What information is disclosed in the footnotes link up to deferred taxes? Please define a deferred tax asset and deferred tax financial obligation. At year end September 24 2011 the balance sheet shows following amount of deferred tax assets and liabilitiesDeferred tax asset is arising collect qualified to deductible ephemeral differences, tax losses, and tax credits of $3.2Billion and deferred tax liabilities of $9.2Billion. Deferred revenue is recorded when the ac fraternity receives make upments of their products in advance or for the performance of services. It includes amount for un specify and specified softw atomic number 18 upgrade rights and non-software services that are attached to the products of the corporation. It is disclosed in the footnotes that Deferred tax assets and liabilities shows the effects of tax losses, credits, and the time to come income tax effects of flying differences between the consolidated financial bid carrying amounts of current assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and are mensurable using en-acted tax rates that apply to their ratable income in the years in which these temporary differences are expected to be recovered or coloni zed. Footnotes besides states that corporation records a valuation salary in order to mow the deferred tax asset to the amount it thinks crappernot be realized.Deferred tax assetDeferred tax asset is define as reduction in companys future taxes as the company has already paid for these taxes in past. It is like a prepaid tax. It is aimd to reduce later periods income taxes.Deferred tax liabilityDeferred tax liability is defined as liability that the company owes but they dont have to pay it in the current time but allow be due in some future time. This often results due to difference in tax regulations and accounting practices.2. What temporary and permanent differences does the company disclose in its footnotes? What are some other examples of temporary and permanent differences?Operating loss to carry forward /carry forwardThe company had un confessd tax public assistances of 1.4 billionGuidelines for carry forwards and carrybacksTax police force allows corporation to carry forward loss up to 20 years and they can carryback tax losses only up to 2 years. A carry forward can be used to reduce future income and in the end reducing future tax payments.4. Does the company have a defined benefit or defined contribution jut out? What are the key elements of the stick out discussed in the footnotes? What amounts on the balance sheet relate to this plan? What are the differences between defined benefit and defined contribution plans? Employee contribution planThe key element discuss in the footnotes is the rate to which the contribution is made and matching of contribution by company itself. The Companys matching contributions to the Savings Plan were $90 million, $72 million and $59 million in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.Difference between returns and contribution planIn contribution the employer put certain strict percentage of employees to the fund and invest it no loss or pip is recognized because its liability is of contributing that amou nt only. However in benefit plan the company promised to pay certain amount to employees due to which it has to recognize gain or losses and liability.5. What are the earnings-per-share amounts disclosed on the income statement for the most recent year? What dilutive securities are discussed in the footnotes? Please recognize and describe other examples of dilutive securities. How do these impact earnings per share? thin out EPSEffect on EPS of DilutiveDilutive EPS is calculated due to the Debt securities company issued to which company offers for spiritual rebirth from debt security to Company shares. If converted, the denominator will increase and hence EPS will decrease. some other types of dilutive sharesThe other types of diluted shares are warrants and share option. Bonus shares may also dilute EPS.6. What kind of share-based wages does the company have? What was the compensation disbursal for the two most recent years? What are the key elements of this plan discussed in the footnotes? Please identify and describe other types of share-based compensation.Share based PaymentsThe Company has two kind of share based compensation adept is that the company receives employees service in exchange of equity instrument, or of recognizing liabilities that are based on the fair protect of the company stock or may be settled through issuing.The elementsThe key element in the foot note is the difference between restricted stock unit and stock option plan. In RSUs the compensation cost is measured by closing fair value of stock at admit date. However in stock option the valuation at give in date is done through Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) option-pricing model.Other types of compensationThe other types of compensation is that employees to whom compensation is paid is left with the choice whether to take cash settled i.e. by incurring liabilities or by equity settlements.7. Does the company use the direct or indirect cash watercourse presentation mode? What is the difference between these two methods? How does the cash flow statement consort to the other financial statements?APPLE INC. uses indirect method of cash flow. The main difference in direct and indirect method is of operate activities section. In direct method of cash flow there is a sum of all check and deposits in a particular category whereas in indirect method of cash flow we have to make adjustments in order to arrive at loot cash flow from operating activities. Net cash balance calculated in the cash flow statement agrees with cash balance in the balance sheet.8. What investment funds and financial backing activities does the company have? What are some other examples of investing and financial support activities? Company has following investing activitiesPurchases of marketable securities, publication from maturities of marketable securities, Proceeds from bargains agreements of marketable securities, Payments made in connection with business acquisitions, mool ah of cash acquired Payments for acquisition of property, plant and equipment and Payments for acquisition of intangible assets. Other examples of investing activities are purchase/sale of long term investments and purchase/sale of debt or equity securities of other companies.Financing activities of companyProceeds from issuance of common stock, Excess tax benefits from equity awards and Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards. Other examples of financing activities are sale of equity securities, issuance of bonds and notes, dividend paid and redeem long term debt.9. What non-cash proceedings does the company have on its cash flow statement? What are some other examples of non-cash proceedings?Following are the non cash transactions of the company on its cash flow statement$(000) Depreciation, amortization and accumulation 1,814 Share-based compensation expense 1,168 Deferred income tax expense 2,868 Other non cash-transaction examples are provisions, unsucce ssful foreign currency gains/losses and minority interests.ConclusionThis course project shows evidence in Apples strict guidelines and how they run their business. comparability the numbers they have posted on their site Im able to physically see how certain liabilities and Assets are moved and equilibrise in different quarters throughout the year. Seeing this also allows me to get a line on how they operate in a bigger scale from a birds eye view. Since they are such a bouffant company they do not hesitate to report all their taxes and pay the full amount without using shortcuts that most smaller companies are able to get away with.Based on the report from 2011 and 2010 Apple prioritizes their tax expenses with alacrity and with their triple checked system it truly leaves no direction for error in their accounting department. By looking into their books, I can conclude that this company is in strong standing and that they will be around for a long time maybe for another hundr ed years. Most companies dont have that kind of net value since they fall into category of accrued debt paying off an impossible bill of benefits to their employees.Works Citedhttp//investor.apple.com/secfiling.cfm?filingID=1193125-11-282113&CIK=320193 http//investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-balance-sheet?symbol=AAPL& http//finapps.forbes.com/finapps/jsp/finance/compinfo/IncomeStatement.jsp?tkr=aapl&period=qtr http//finapps.forbes.com/finapps/jsp/finance/compinfo/Ratios.jsp?tkr=aapl

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Comparative Programmes of Business Education in Nigerian Universities (a Case Study of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma and Delta State University, Abraka)

Current Research Journal of affectionate wisdoms 2(2) 58-64, 2010 ISSN 2041-3246 M axwell Scientific Organization, 2010 Submitted Date November 18, 2009 original Date December 14, 2009 Accepted Date March 10, 2010 Comparative Pro grandmes of business organization statement In Nigerian Universities (A Case Study of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma and Delta wholeege University, Abraka) 1 F. O. Ohiwerei and 2 N. A zih seg ment of vocational and Technical discipline, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpom a, Edo State, Nig eria 2 Departm ent of barter teaching, E bon yi State University, Abakaliki, Eb ony i State, Nigeria Abstract This paper is aimed to critic altogethery x-ray the pipeline genteelness professional persongram of Nigerian Universities a case study of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma and Delta State U niversity, Ab raka. It w as detect that in Amb rose Alli University business program line is housed in the department of Vocational and Technical study with twain natural selections namely be direction and secretarial educational activity temporary hookup it runs a specialise ashes right from 1 00 to 4 00 lev els. On the early(a) hand the Delta State University runs a 100 to 200 abbreviate aims broad base system. Specialization is done in 300 and 400 levels.Here business gentility is a unit of its own housing accoun sound option, secretarial option, cargon option, solely unfortunately computer commandment options is not functional. It was observed that the objectives, ism and ad mission requ irements of bo th universities be the same. season courses offered argon unlike in nature. Conclusion and recommendations were made. Key w ords stage business educ ation, curriculu m, effectiveness, pro gram me, teachin g, univ ersity INTRODUCTION Education is the totality of life experience that man acquires and which enables him to sleep with with and derive satisfaction from living in the word.This is because it enables him to achie ve social competence and optimum individual outgrowth. Broken down, business gentility which is a subset of the commonplace preparation can be seen as the suppuration of persons h ead, heart and han ds for his self fulfillment and optimum avail s to human ity. To achieve this according to the guinea pig Policy on Education (2004), compu ter grooming was integra ted into the primary tutor computer program, a welcome development but sad to note that sub jects like shorthand, typewriting, commerce, and book-keeping are interconnected together to form business studies at that placeby losing their original identity. have a go at it has shown that most stack are not interested in business education as a profession with the mind set that it is education meant for the less perk or a course of study, which up on graduation, on that point is no luck for securing a job. This is so because Bu siness educ ation curriculum excogitationners who are not profe ssional membe rs in the world could not design a uniform curriculum that go away ho use each(prenominal) the universities offering business educ ation courses in Nigeria. The incompetence on the part of business education graduates also lays on the curriculum not properly designed to reflect the psychomotor nature of our noble profession.Pitman (1974) defin ed curriculum as a prescribed courses of studies. While Hornby (2006) says curriculum are the subjects that are include in a course of study or taugh t in a school, college, etc. According to Okoye (1991), the process of curricu lum developm ent and plan ning is continuo us. It does not end once and for completely time. Acco rding to Uwaifo (2006) a underweight look at the current Vocational and Technical Education curriculum g enera lly reveals some problems that border on inadequate course content.Uhumuavbi and Ebhomhen (20 06) in their ow n vain say that irrespective of the level of education and train given during the pre-colonial days in Africa, it was functional because the curriculum was pertinent to the call for of the society. Unemployment if it existed at all was minimal and very few young men roamed the villages and towns with nothing to do. According to Snyder (2008), a flexible curriculum is in-chief(postnominal) because there is no single cu rricular path to career success. We are bountiful students more flexibility this is not a radical departure from our curriculum.Robert and kiosk (2008) stated that the curriculum changes allow students to increase the intensity o f their studies. The present Nigerian Universities business education curriculum has overstayed, therefore, it is important that they be modified to meet todays needs. This is very necessary from the vantage point of academic integrity. One will be tempted to ask at this juncture, is there anything wrong with the present Nigerian Universities business Corresponding Author F. O. Ohiwerei, incision of Vocational and Technical Education, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria 58Curr. Res. J. Soc. Sci. , 2(2) 58-64, 2010 education curriculum? The researchers answer is YES but that does not mean that the p resent curriculum on found can not be improved upon. The reasons for the reform ation of the business education curriculum is aimed to he lp create tomorrows competitive hightail itforce by inspiring and engaging businesses to work in partnership with schools to kick up the levels of exercise of young people, especially those in disadvantaged circumstances. task education has advanced the level of garbage in, garbage out words system but a leadership role.The importance of the business edu cators is increasing as the business world buy the farms more complex. Through this programm e, individuals are educated to become skilled employees who can contribute mea ningfully to the overall effectiveness of an stain, teaching and instruction in schools. It is on the basis of this therefore the researche rs attempt to examine, compa re and channel the cu rriculum of business education broadcasts of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma and Delta State University, Abraka with a absorb to scientifically reform it to meet the ever increasing techn ology deve lopm ent.This study will be of benefit to the teachers, students, parents and governmen t. Through this study, students competency for work placem ent w ill be ach ieved . The teachers will be properly informed on what should be included or excluded from the curriculum for effective teaching and breeding. The parents will comport a sign of relief that upon gradu ation from the unive rsity their children will be gainfully employed or self-reliance. The government will appreciate the programm e, as it will help to tighten unemployment and crime rate in the society.LITERATURE REVIEW jitneyINESS EDUCATION PROGRAMM ES OFFERED BY AMBROSE ALLI UNIVERSITY, EKPOMA AND DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA Business education program mes offered by A mbro se Alli University, Ekpoma are C C history education option secretarial education option C W hile the business education programmes offered by the Delta State University, Abraka are C C C C C Accounting selection Secretarial Technology weft guidance Option. Computer Education Option.Programm e title Secretarial Studies/O ffice Ma nagem ent Both universities have the same philosophy, specific objectives and admission requirements as describe below doctrine The introduction of the power automation, by the use of electronic equipment has not only brought changes on speckle procedures and competencies, but also has created in the raw functions in the business offices. In order to met the chan ging o ffice skills, educational have also changed their business education programmes to cater for the new requiremen ts by introducing office management programme.In Nigeria, office automation has become a reality and all levels of government are requesting educational institutions t o include co mpu ter literacy in their curriculum. This programme is designed to meet the requirements of the changing office environment and the call by the governments in Nigeria. Specific Objectives This programme is designed to give the students the liability to work in modern business offices and to teach modern office skills in seconda ry schools.Specifically, the programme will give the students the skills to perform the follow ing functions in the office C C C C C training and organizing office operations, W ritten communications and telecom mun ications in the office, tuition and records management in the office, lead and pitying relations in the office, Controlling office operations. Adm ission requirements (Four-year programmeUM E) W est African School Certificate (W ASC) or General Certificate of Education (GCE O/L or NECO with at least creed passes in five relevant subjects which moldiness include English Language.Direct entry C Passes at meritoriousness level in relevant Diploma programme of a University or any other institution recognized by Senate in addition to fou r O/L credit passes which must include English Language. Passes in dickens relevant subjects at A /L in ad dition to three C/L credit passes or its equivalent which must include English Language, Passes at merit level in least tw o sub jects in NC E in addition to three credit passes in G CE O/L or its equivalent, in not more than two sittings.In the actual sense, Accounting, Secretarial and man agem ent op tions are opera tional. 59 No student shall qua lify for the award of an hono urs degree of the University if he/she spends more than two sessions (four semesters) beyond the normal period allowed for the degree programme. Curr. Res. J. Soc. Sci. , 2(2) 58-64, 2010 Accounting Education University, Ekpoma Option of A mbrose A lli ACC ACC ACC ACC 304 306 307 308 commonplace finance Com pany righteousness Banking A nd pay Quantitative Analysis For Business Decision 2C 2C 2 C 2C 24F I R ST S E M E S T E R 1 0 0 L E V E L S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 3 00 L E V E L EDU 100 EDU one hundred one EDU 102 ECO 101 ACC 101 GS T 10 1 GS T 1 02 CSC 101 adit To teach Profession H istory Of Education Developm ental Psy 1 E conom ics linguistic rules 1 Principle Of Accounting U se O f Eng lish An d Lib rary P hilos oph y A nd L ogic Intro To Compu ter 2C 2C 2C 3C 3C 4C 2C 2C 20 VTE 311 Students industrial outcome a shit Experience Scheme F I R ST S E M E S T E R EDU EDU ED U ACC ACC 400 LEVEL 15CS E C O N D S E M E S T E R 1 00 L E V E L EDU 111 EDU 115 GS T 11 1 GST 1 12 EC O 1 11 bang 111 hunch 114 AC C 1 11 accounting entrys To Social Studies Intoduction To Special Education N igeria Peo ples A nd C ulture memoir And Philosophy Science E cono mics P rinciple II right course session F undam entals Of Bu siness P rinciples O f Acc oun ting II 2C 2E 2C 2C 3C 2C 3C 3C 19 400 cypher 402G uidance And rede 4 03 C ontin uou s A ssess men t 402Auditing And I nvestigation 404 Public Sector Accounting 4 00 L E V E L C 2C 2C 3C 3C 16 SECOND SEMESTER EDU 411 EDU 413 EDU 415 ACC 412 AC C 4 14 ACC 415 come 413 sleep together 415 VTE 411 F I R ST S E M E S T E R 2 0 0 L E V E L EDU 201 EDU 202 VTE 201 ACC 201 ACC 204 A C C 2 08 ECO 201 Philosophy Of Education C urriculum And bid Vte In Nigeria And Other Coun tries Financial Accounting 1 Introduction To pay 1 B us in es s L aw 1 M icro political economy 2C 2C 2C 3C 2C 2C 3C 16 C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 2C 23 Secretarial Education Option of A m b ro se A ll i U n iv er si ty , E k po m a F I R ST S E M E S T E R 1 0 0 L E V E L EDU 100 EDU 101 EDU 102 GS T 10 1 GS T 1 02 BE D 1 01 layer 102 AC C 1 01 CSC 101 Introduction To education Profession H istory Of Education Developm ental Psy I U se O f Eng lish An d Lib rary P hilos oph y A nd L ogic S hortha nd I Typew riting I P rinciples O f Acc oun ting I Introduction To C omputer Science 2C 2C 2C 4C 2C 3C 3C 3C 2C 23O rganization of ancient And alternative Education C omparative Education E ducational Psychology oversight Accounting F inan cial M ana gem ent M anagement info dodging H uman dealings And Personnel solicitude B usiness Communication Professional SeminarF O R D I R E C T E N T R Y ST U D E N T S O N L Y GS T 10 1 U se O f Eng lish An d Lib rary GS T 1 02 P hilos oph y A nd L ogic CSC 101 Introduction To C omputer Science S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 2 00 L E V E L EDU 211 EDU 212 EDU 213 EDU 214 ACC 211 ACC 213 AC C 2 14 GST 222 VT E 2 11 Subject method acting E ducational Technology Sociology Of Education R esearch Method S and info bear on Financial Accounting 11 Cost Accounting I In troduc tion To Finan ce II Peace And Conflict Resolution V OC & T ech .Edu catio n in N igeria 3C 3C 2C 2C 3C 2C 2C 2C 2C 21 4C 2C 2C 24 S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 1 00 L E V E L EDU 111 EDU 115 GS T 11 1 GST 1 12 jockey 111 BE D 1 12 BE D 1 13 recognize 114 AC C 1 11 Introduction To Social Studies Introduction To Spe cial Education N igeria Peo ples A nd C ulture History And Philosophy Science king Practice T ypew riting II S hortha nd II Introdu ction To B usiness P rinciples O f Acc oun ting II 2C 2E 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 23F I R ST S E M E S T E R 2 0 0 L E V E L EDU 201 EDU 202 VTE 201 layer 201 get it on 202 neck 203 keister 205 rump 208 Philosophy Of Education C urriculum And Instruction VT E In Nigeria And Other Countries Intermediate tachygraphy Intermediate typewrite P lanning O rganizing Office O perations I B usiness Co mmu nications I Business Law 2C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 21 F O R D I R E C T E N T R Y ST U D E N T S O N L Y GS T 11 1N igerian P eople A nd C ulture GST 1 12 History And Philosophy Of Science 2C 2C 25F I R ST S E M E S T E R 3 0 0 L E V E L EDU 300 EDU 301 EDU 302 VTE 301 fork up 304 ACC 301 ACC 303 Teaching Practice E ducational brass And Planning E ducational Technology fourth dimension M anagement B usiness forge Intermediate Financial Accounting I Element Of charge 3C 2C 2C 2C 2C 3C 2C F O R D I R E C T E N T R Y ST U D E N T S O N L Y GS T 10 1 U se O f Eng lish An d Lib rary GS T 1 02 P hilos oph y A nd L ogic CSC 101 Introduction To C omputer Science 4C 2C 2C 8 0 Curr. Res. J. Soc. Sci. , 2(2) 58-64, 2010 S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 2 00 L E V E L EDU 211 EDU 212 EDU 213 EDU 214 GST 222 BED 211 BED 212 BE D 2 13 BE D 2 15 VT E 2 11 Subject Method E ducational Technology Sociology Of Education R esearch Methods And selective information Processing Peace And Conflict Resolution Intermediate tachygraphy I Intermediate Typewriting I P lanning /Orga nization O ffice O peration s II B usiness Co mm unication II V oc. A nd te ch.E duc ation in N igeria 3C 3C 3C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 3C 2C 27 S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 1 00 L E V E L BE D 1 11 In troduc tion to S ecretarial Ed ucation in Sho rthand II BE D 1 12 In troduc tion to S ecretarial Ed ucation in Typ ewriting II BED 113 Principles of Business Education BED 114 Introduction to Vocation al & Technical Education BED 115 Principles & Practice of Cooperative EDU 112 Introduction to Social Studies Education AC C 1 11 In troduc tion to A ccou nting II BUS 114 B usiness Communication EC N 1 11 P rinciples o f Eco nom ics II GS T 11 1 N igeria Peo ple and Cu lture GST 113 Peace Studies andConflict Resolution GST 1 14 Com munication in French F I R ST S E M E S T E R 2 0 0 L E V E L 2C 2C 4 BED 201 B asic Word Processing Shorthand I BED 202 B asic Word Processing Typewriting I BED 203 M arketing Management Education EDU 200 Principles of Instruction EDU 201 Philosophy of Education EDU 202 C urriculum Development ACC 201 Financial Accounting I AC C 2 03 Q uan titative F inan cial A naly sis BU S 2 01 P rincip les of M ana gem ent I CSC 200 Introduction to Compu ter S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 2 00 L E V E L BE D 2 11 B asic W ord P rocessin g Sho rthand II BE D 2 12 B asic W ord P rocessin g Typ ewriting II BED 213 O ffice Management BED 214 Leadership Behaviour BED 215 fin ance and Economics of Business Education EDU 211 B usiness Education Method EDU 212 T est and Measurement EDU 213 Sociology of Education AC C 2 11 F inancial A ccou nting II BU S 21 1 Princ iples of M anag emen t II 2C 2C 2C 2C 2E 3C 3C 2C 3C 2E 23 Accounting Option 300 Level of Delta State University, Abraka BED BED EDU EDU EDU ACC ACC ACC BUS 302 B usiness Edu cation Statistics I 303 B anking Education 300 Teaching Practice 301 E ducational judicatory and Planning 302 educational Technology 301 Corporate Accounting I 303 Cost Accounting I 305 Auditing B us in es s L aw I 2C 2C 3C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 2C 22 2C 2C 2C 2C 2C 2C 2C 2E 3C 3C 22F O R D I R E C T E N T R Y ST U D E N T S O N L Y GS T 11 1N igerian P eople a nd C ulture GST 1 12 History And Philosophy of Science 4 F IR S T S E M E S T E R 3 00 L E V E L EDU 300 Teaching Practice EDU 301 E ducational Administration And Planning EDU 302 E ducational Technology VTE 301 Time M anagement BE D 3 01 In termed iate Sho rthand II BE D 3 02 In termed iate Typ ewriting II BE D 3 03 R eco rd M ana gem ent I BED 304 B usiness Machine AC 3 06 Com pany Law S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 3 00 L E V E L VTE 311 Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme F I R ST S E M E S T E R 4 0 0 L E V E L EDU EDU EDU BED BED BED 400 visualize 402 G uidance And Counseling 403 C ontinuous Assessment 401 O ffice bid I 402 W ord Processing I 403 Personnel Management 6C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 19 15C 3C 2C 3C 2C 3C 3C 3C 2C 3C 24 2C 2C 2C 2C 2E 2C 2C 2C 3C 2C 2C 2C 25 S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 4 00 L E V E L EDU 411 O rganization Of native And lowly Education EDU 413 C omparative Education EDU 415 E ducationalPsychology VTE 411 Professional Seminar BE D 4 1I O ffice D ictation II BE D 4 12 W ord P rocessin g II BED 413 Hum an Relations And Personnel BE D 4 14 R ecord M anag emen t II ACC 415 M anagement Information System 2C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 2C 3C 3C 23 Accounting, Secretarial and M ana gem ent O ptions of D elta Sta te University, Abraka F I R S T S E M E S T E R 1 0 0 L E V E L BED 101Introduction to Secretarial Education in Shorthand I BED 102 Introduction to Secretarial Education in Typewriting I EDU 100 Introduction to Teaching Profession EDU 101 H istory of Education EDU 102 D evelopmental Psychology ACC 101 Introduction to Accounting I BUS 102 Introduction to Business math ECN 102 P rinciples of Econom ics I GS T 10 1 U se of E nglish a nd L ibrary GS T 1 02 P hilos oph y an d L ogic 2C 2C 2C 2C 2C 2C 3C 3C 2C 2C 22S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 3 00 L E V E L BE D 3 12 B usiness Edu cation S tatistics II BED 313 H uman Resources Management in Education EDU 311 Educational Psychology EDU 312 R esearch Methods and Data Processing ACC 311 Corporate Accounting II (Accounting Option) ACC 312 Taxation AC C 3 13 C ost A ccou nting II F I R ST S E M E S T E R 4 0 0 L E V E L BED BED BED BED EDU EDU EDU ACC 400 Research Project 402 Project Evaluation 403 A dmin. Of Vocational and Technical Education 404 Business Finance 401 Tea ching Practice 402 G uidance and Counseling 403 C ontinuous Assessment 402 ripe Financial Accounting 6C 2C 2C 2E 3C 2C 2C 3C 21 2C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 3C 18 61 Curr. Res. J. Soc. Sci. , 2(2) 58-64, 2010S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 4 00 L E V E L BED BED BED BED BED EDU EDU ACC 410 Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) 411 Sm all Business Development 412 Professional Seminar 413 B usiness Education and Industrial Relations 414 M anpower discipline and Development 411 O rganization of Primary and Secondary Education 412 C omparative Education 412 Financial Management 6C 2C 2C 2C 3E 2C 2C 3C BED 313 H uman Resources Management in Education BE D 3 14 In termed iate W ord P rocessin g II B E D 3 15 In te rm ed ia te Sh orth an d II (1 00 W PM ) BED 316 Law and Practice of Meetings (E) BE D 3 17 S ecretarial Pro cedu re EDU 311 E ducational Psychology EDU 312 R esearch Methods and Data Processing F IR S T SE M E S T E R 40 0 LE V E BED 400 Research Project BED 402 Project Evaluat ion BED 403 A dmin.Of Vocational and Technical Education BED 404 Business Finance BED 405 A dvanced Word Processing I B E D 4 06 Ad va nc ed Sh orth an d I (1 10 W PM ) EDU 401 Teaching Practice EDU 402 G uidance and Counseling EDU 403 C ontinuous Assessment S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 4 00 L E V E L BED 410 BED 411 BED 412 BED 413 BED 414 BE D 4 15 B E D 4 16 BED 417 EDU 411 EDU 412 Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) Sm all Business Development Professional Seminar B usiness Education and Industrial Relations M anpower Development A dvan ced W ord P rocess II Ad va nc ed Sh orth an d I (1 20 W PM ) V ocational Guidance in Business Education O rganization of Primary and Secondary Education C omparative Education 6C 2C 2C 2C 3E 2C 2E 2E 2C 2C 25 4C 2C 2C 2E 2C 2E 3C 2C 2C 21 2C 2C 2C 2E 2C 2C 3C 19 22Managem ent Option of Delta State University, Abraka F I R ST S E M E S T E R 3 0 0 L E V E L ED U 30 2 Bu siness Education S tatistics I BED 303 B anking Education EDU 3 00 Teaching Practice EDU 301 E ducational Administration and Planning EDU 302 E ducational Technology BUS 304 Production Management BUS 307 D ata Processing and Management Information B U S 30 2 Bu si ne ss La w I S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 3 00 L E V E L BED 311 Business M achines BE D 3 12 B usiness Edu cation S tatistics II BED 313 H uman Resources Management in Education EDU 311 E ducational Psychology EDU 312 R esearch Methods and Data Processing BUS 316 C onsumer Behaviour and Production BUS 317 D ata Processing and Management Information F I R ST S E M E S T E R 4 0 0 L E V E L BED BED BED BED EDU EDU EDU BUS 400 Research Project 402 Project Evaluation 403 A dmin. Of Vocational and Technical Education 404 Business Finance 401 Teaching Practice 402 G uidance and Counseling 403 C ontinuous Assessment 401 Business Policy 6C 2C 2C 2E 3C 2C 2C 3C 22 2E 2C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C 17 2C 2C 3C 2C 2C 2C 3C 2C 18DISCUSSION The objectives, philosophy and admission requirements of both universit ies are the same. The course description of Compu ter education option of Delta State University was not stated in their handbook an indication that the p rogramm e is yet to take of. It was also observed that the present curriculum being operated by the Business Education of Delta State University became operational in 2006/2007 academic session to date. Differences in course units were observed. For example, according to Ambrose Alli University, F aculty of Education hand book (2000), shorthand, which is 3 units in Ambrose A lli University, is 2 units in Delta State University. Title differences were observed e. g. n Amb rose Alli University BED 205 and BED 215 is Business Comm unica tion, w hile in De lta State University Business Communication is coded BUS 114. BED 400, which is research pro ject in D elta State University, is EDU 400 in Am brose Alli Un iversity. there are some courses that are offered in Ambrose Alli University that are not offered in D elta State University. A lso there are some courses that are offered in Delta State University that are not offered in Ambrose Alli University, such as BED 113 Principles of Business Education, GST 114 Communication in French, BED 203 Marketing Management Education, BED 214 Leadership b ehaviou r, BED 410 Small Business Development, BED 413 Business Education and Industrial Relations BED 414 Manpower Training and D evelo pme nt.S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 4 00 L E V E L BED 410 Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) BED 411 Sm all Business Development BED 412 Professional Seminar BED 413 B usiness Education and Industrial Relations BED 414 M anpower Development EDU 411 O rganization of Primary and Secondary Education EDU 412 C omparative Education BUS 416 Sale Management 6C 2C 2C 2C 3E 2C 2C 2C 21 Secretarial Technology Option of Delta State University, Abraka F I R ST S E M E S T E R 3 0 0 L E V E L BED 302 B usiness Edu cation Statistics I BED 303 B anking Education BED 304 Intermediate Wor d Processing I B E D 3 05 In te rm ed ia te Sh orth an d I (9 0 W P M ) BED 306 Office Information System EDU 300 Teaching Practice EDU 301 E ducational Administration and Planning EDU 302 E ducational Technology B U S 30 2 Bu si ne ss La w 1 S E C O N D S E M E S T E R 3 00 L E V E L BED 311 Business M achines BE D 3 12 B usiness Edu cation S tatistics II 2C 2C 2C 2C 3C 2C 2E 3C 2C 2C 2C 20 62 Curr. Res. J. Soc. Sci. 2(2) 58-64, 2010 W hile the future(a) are courses offered in Am brose Alli University that are not offered in D elta State University BED 111 O ffice Practice BED 114 Foundamental of Business ECO 111 Economics Practice ACC 208 Business Law V TE 301 Time M anag eme nt VTE 201 VTE in Nigeria and other coun tries BED 203 Planning Organizing Office BED 303 R ecord Manag eme nt, and BED 415 M anagement Information System. CONCLUSION C It is our responsibility to plan, im plem ent, and modify programmes so that students can attain a satisfactory level of achievement approp riate to either imm ediate employment or advanced education in preparation for later employment. Opportunities are ab undant for studen ts in the business w orld if their preparation is complete and if their attitudes are positive.RECOMMENDATIONS The authors hold the view that to be relevant in the 21 st Century, business educ ators sh ould be trained based on the following courses 100 and 200 level for both office education and accounting education (1) Computer in business education (2) Shorthand (3) Introduction to Office Education in typewriting 1 (4) Principle of Accounting 1 (5) Introdu ction to Office education in typewriting II (6) Office Ma nagem ent (7) Introduction to B usiness (8) Principles of Accou nting II (9) Office Information System 1 (10) Basic word processing in Office (11) Business Communication (12) Financial Accounting 1 (13) Business Law 1 (14) Basic word processing in Office II (15) Business Ma chines (16) B usiness C omm unication II (18) Planning/ shaping o f Office operations. (19) Office Information system II (20) Entrepreneurship. 00 and 400 level office technology (1) Audio typing (Manual and Electric) (2) place down Management (3) Time Management (4) Company Law (5) Sma ll Scale Business (Introduction to Bu siness) (6) Indu strial Attachment (SIWES) (7) practical(a) Teaching ( 8) utilise W ord processing in Office (9) Office Dictation I (10) Business Ownership/Applied Economics (11) Human/Personnel Management (12) Marketing (13) Industrial and Labour Relations (14) Applied W ord processing in Office II (15) Office Dictation II (16) Record Management II (17) Seminar and Project wo rk. This is how ever subjec t to official revision. 300 and 400 level accounting education (1) Record Management (2) Time Managem ent (3) Company Law (4) Small Scale Business (Introduction to Business) (5) Industrial Attachment (SIWES) (6) Practical Teaching (7) 63 C Business Ow nership/Applied E conom ics (8) Human/Personnel Management (9) Marketing (10) Industrial and Labour Relations (11) Record Management II (12) Seminar (13) Project work. Accounting courses from Accounting Department should be added to the above. This is however subject to regular revision.Other recommendations are C National University Commission should regularize the curriculum of business education in all Nigerian Universities. Curriculum planners should be careful while planning in order not to remove some essential recipes from the existing content. Such as the issue of shorthand to be or not to be. All business education students should be allowed to offer all courses in 100-200 levels and specialized in 300 levels. National University Commission should take it upon her self to redeploy those lecturers who are not business educators specialist to their specialized departments. Regular review of the curriculum of our educational system is urgently required.This view is supported by that of Snyder (2008) which stated tha t flexible curriculum is importa nt because there is no single curricular path to career success. While Kaplan (2008) says g iving studen ts more flexibility, is not a radical departure from their curriculum . Government shou ld provide fun ds and equ ipment to service holistic regular curriculum designers for the smooth running of business education programmes as this will encourage parents, teachers and students. This is in line with Omo-Ojugo and Ohiwerei (2008) that stated that local, state and federal gove rnments shou ld assist by providing funds and equipment for teaching and learning of business education.More courses shou ld be co-ordinated in the business curriculum to provide more job opportunities for graduates as recently carried out by the U niversity of Chicago Gradu ate school of Business as confirmed by Sny der (2008). REFERENCES Amb rose Alli U niversity, 2000. Fac ulty of Education Handbook for Undergraduate Students 2000-2004. Ekpoma, AAU. Delta State University, 200 6. Bu siness Education Uni t Academ ic Programme for B. Sc. Degree In Business Education. Abraka, Delsu. Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004. National Policy on Education. Yaba Lago s NERD C Press. Hornby, A. S. , 2006. Oxford Advanced scholar Dictionary of Cu rrent Eng lish. th Edn. , London, Oxford press. C C C C Curr. Res. J. Soc. Sci. , 2(2) 58-64, 2010 Kaplan, S. , 2008. Curriculum Changes announced by University of Ch icago Graduate School of Business. Business Wire. post on W ednesd ay, 8th October. 0900 CDT. Okoye, N. S. , 1991. Curriculum Theory and Development. Enugu, Ne w A ge Publishers. Omo-Ojugo, M . O. and F. O. Ohiwerei, 2008. School factors affecting teaching and learning of business education studies in Nig eria. Pak. J. Soc. Sci. , 5(7) 663-670. ISSN 1683 -8831. Pitman, I. , 1974. Dictionary of English and Shorthand. Lon don, Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons Ltd. Robert, G. and W. W . Booth, 2008.Curriculum Changes Announced by University of C hicag o Graduate School of by Business. Business W i re. post on Wednesday, 8th October. 0900 CDT. Snyder, E. , 2008. Curriculum Changes Announced by University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Business W ire. Posted on W ednesd ay, 8th October. 0900 CDT. Uhumu avbi, P. O. and E. S. Ebhomhen, 2006. Curriculum innovation in Nigeria, successes and failures tax deduction for teacher ed ucation. J. Curric. Stud. Instr. , 2 69-77, ISSN 1117-4080. Uwaifo, V. O. , 2006. Vocationalization A panacea for a s us ta in a ble t e c h n ol o g i ca l a nd m an p ow e r development in Nigeria. J. Curric. Stud. Instr. , 2 3039, ISSN 1117-4080. 64

H&M in Accounting Essay

Content Page suspicions query 1. Using Michael doormans five forces model, evaluate the grandeur of Barriers to Entry to the fast-fashion persistence. Support your arguments with record from the courting study. (20%) interrogate 2. Conduct a value chain epitome to assess H&Ms capabilities and derive its core competencies. (35%) Question 3. establish on these competencies identify the generic competitive dodge which H&M is pursuing. (10%) Question 4. It is suggested in the case study that the fashion fabrication is full of companies that have confidently expanded into international markets but by and by have been forced to retreat. Analyze the international strategy choice being traced by H&M and assess the extent to which this is get for its future development. (25%) AppendixGlobal FactorsLocal FactorsIntegration Responsiveness GridReferencesQuestion 1.Applying Michael porters five forces model, it includes the threat of entrants and substitutes, bargaining power of su ppliers and customers and competitive rivalry. Among all, barriers to incoming could be an essential factor to the fast-fashion industry. Even so, the threat of door is alter by some(prenominal) factors. Different sources of barriers to entry puke act as a determinant on the height of barriers. As mentivirtuosod in the case study, fast-fashion industries doesnt require a life-sized chief city outlay. Entry to the retail industry is so easy that eject be garb up with a group of suppliers being chosen from. Therefore, the level of electrical shock of capital requirement to the barriers to entry is hapless. Secondly, economies of crustal plate is a barrier to entry as its crossway unit address impart be lowered for the businesses which already attained a harvest-timeion volume so that it will be hard for the modern entrants to compete. H&Ms monetary values have been cut by an even cheaper competitor. In this case, economies of scales level of impingement to the fast- fashion industry is amply. For the absolute cost advantage, for incumbent companies who already have economies of scale can have a significant cost advantage over new entrants.Additional costs may includethe learning or experience curve, proprietary engine room and government subsidies. Therefore, the level of impact is high for new entrants. Considering product specialisation, the level of impact is regarded as low as fast-fashion industry has a variety of choices in its suppliers that could be different from some others. Also, it can be overcome by creating in its birth discolouration to avoid this liberal of barrier. There may non be a difficulty in access to channels of supply and dissemination to the fast-fashion industry because these channels argon held by numerous suppliers. New entrants can set up their own like Gap Corporation and Inditex by performing as both manufacturers and retailers which results in low level of impact. The level of impact of the legal and r egulatory barriers will be treated as low either. Various examines may be limited by the governments such as the licensing requirement or limit to access to raw materials.These would not be applied to the fast-fashion industry as it generally has less control by the governments and usually bound by the legal system. Last but not least, the level of impact of the expected retaliation could be high since the sizing and duration of retaliation in fast-fashion industry argon extreme. These may threaten the new entrants including the price cuts. New entrants have less ability to fake retaliation than those incumbents in view of experience and resources. To conclude, the overall height of barriers to entry is low which means a serious threat of entering fast-fashion industry. It implies an intense rivalry and an unattractive environment. Therefore, it is outstanding to consider the barriers to entry in this industry.Question 2.The value chain analysis is mainly divided into both typ es- clog up and primary activities. This analysis is made to let companies determine where value is added to the customers and molding is extendd to the organization. Under live activities, H&Ms substantial infrastructure is easy and simple. Following Erling Perssons basic values and beliefs, H&M intended to offer the fashion and quality at the dress hat price. Also, the managers are given freedom and autonomy in decision- make processes which lead the victory of H&M.For the Human Resources Management, H&M centered on one persons qualities much more than qualifications which implies that opportunities are given to those hatful with lower academic levels. It was noticed that practical skills are more primary(prenominal) to the company instead.Internal promotion and job rotation are the decisive ingredients to sustain H&Ms continuous growth.Regarding technology development, H&M has been adopting the modish IT systems with continuous improvement. Intelligent use of ICT has been an rough-and-ready puppet in assisting H&Ms business which can be applied to the logistics and warehouse system. Moreover, H&M is tightly connected to the customers by means of social network and various phone apps.The fourth support military action is the procurement. As H&M does not own any factories so the manufacturing is outsourced to low-cost countries. Procurement is concentrate in Stockholm. A good federation network can be seen between the production offices and the suppliers in determine to reduce the lead times. On the other hand, the primary activities include five elements-inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, merchandise and sales and assistance. H&M provided little reading on inbound logistics which should include raw materials control and inventory control of input material. This may become a weakness in the charge of H&M.For the operation of H&M, it opts for renting store premises to increase flexibility and adaptability.In addition to t his, H&M will do the product testing about the quality control. Furthermore, a new interiors design is piddled to catch up with the latest twist.Under outbound logistics, tho transportation is handled by the external contractors. However, H&M deals well with the distribution by crack the better(p) price to avoid middlemen. H&M is cost-conscious and thus can reduce the costs being incurred. Also, daily shipments are available to H&M which implies an effective and efficient shipment scheduling system.Considering the marketing and sales, H&M has been collaborating with 200 in-house designers and several famous ones. In addition to this, it has launched semipermanent advertising campaigns with high-profile celebrities which can indirectly boost the sales and build up its image. Online promotion is to a fault available for customers for the latest updates.The last category is the service. normally it refers to the after-sale service that how well a company can do on the quality con trol. H&M just put little focus on after-sale service such as the customer support.This appears to be a weakness to H&M.Apart from inbound logistics and the service, other activities are considered as H&Ms strengths which makes H&M being world leader. Concerning the two types of the activities, there are three key linkagesbetween them. From support to support activity, Human Resources instruction (HRM) is cogitate to technology development as the searching staffs are employed to assist in IT development and continuously making updates through the IT systems. As the advanced technology requires employees to apply the IT skills they have learnt, so there is an important relationship between HRM and technology development. For example, HRM acts as an important role to reply customers queries efficiently and let them k straight the latest trend of the company through social networks. From primary to primary activity, the outbound logistics is linked to the marketing and sales. When t he products and services are delivered to customers, the next process will be about the packaging and promotion on the products.Whether the customers choose the company depends on the quality of both products and services. It is said to be closely related because marketing and sales has usually become a must-do item for the large incumbents specially for the fast-fashion industry. For the last type of linkage from primary to support activity, it can be linked to five activities. Procurement, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, sympathetic resources oversight and technology development are all connected with each other in H&Ms operation.Although H&M didnt own any factories, its manufacturing is outsourced in ordination to find some fashionable items with the final costs in response to the changing market which results in economies of scale. afterwards the procurement process is done, it will be delivered to the customers from the warehouse. Under outbound logistics, it spe cifies the importance of the order fulfillment and on time delivery. As a large incumbent in retail industry, a budget is spent on the marketing and sales on the products being delivered to the consumers.When doing the marketing and sales, IT skills and applications will be used to assist. In line with the promotion of its products, its brand name is super attentive as well. Regarding the firm size and experience in the framework industry, H&M has been paying much attention on CSR charge the brand name away from the criticisms which is treated as a kind of value driver that manage in its brand and reputation.For example, inventory will be shifted to the more popular regions from those with poorer sales amount in order to boost the sales. From this example, it can be seen that the intranet network is well-developed. From procurement to the technology development, they are all connected between each activity. Based on the 3main linkages, the linkage between primary and support activ ity is the some important among all which is credibly to be a core competence of H&M. To affirm whether it is core, the VRIN test can act as an effective tool.Whether it is valuable depends on the effectiveness of the value-creating activities and its future development. The most significant value-creating activity is Human Resources management. Responsible and skilled staffs are essential to H&M as they can apply their experience and techniques in meeting the latest trend and customer needs.Trainings and duration of experience can definitely create value and be further developed.To define how rare it is, this should be equalize with other similar competitors. Apart from the collaboration with in-house designers, H&M unambiguously co-operated with different famous designers over the years from various countries.The essential idea that has already been embedded in the employees. It was said to be unbreakable possession devotion to a goal by the journalists. This in fact is a competitive advantage which H&M can stick to the fundamental principle by offering fashion and quality at the outdo price and this will be difficult for others to imitate.For the last aspect, the category of the human resources management and the procurement may be vulnerable to substitution. The staffs mobility is relatively high in this industry as it varies with the times. This theory also applies to the sources of supplies. But the staff trainings can increase their loyalty to the company which becomes non-substitutable. all told in all the competency mentioned is sufficient to meet the criteria of the VRIN test. Therefore, human resources management in the linkage between the primary and support activities can be treated as core competency that confer competitive advantage.Question 3.Based on the competencies stated in question 2, H&M is pursuing the Hybrid strategy which is the integration of both cost and differentiation strategies. H&M has been applying economies of scale that is achieving cost leadership. H&Ms core principle is to offer the fashion and quality at the best price. One of its core value is to be cost conscious. H&M is alert to the costs which aim to provide the most worthy price for customers. Bargaining power is particularly important in this industry as fast-fashion changes in a speedy mode. At the analogous time, H&M has alsoput a focus on differentiation. In construction its reputation and image, H&M has spent a budget peculiarly for advertising. Besides, working with different types of fashion designers creating innovative collections can lead product differentiation. To compete with others in this industry, cutting cost is not the only way to survive. To become a stable yet significant actor, product differentiation is more effective. Based on the analysis in question 2, H&M has already built core competencies in cost drivers and value drivers which generate efficiency and differentiation. Also, H&M can resolve quickly to the changing environment to fulfill customers needs and technology level. So Hybrid strategy is adopted in H&M.Question 4.Based on the Integration Responsiveness Grid, H&M is likely to pursue ball-shapedization strategy. Globalization is the transition of industries from a multinational to a globose competitive structure. From the global factors, H&M scores higher than that in local factors. There are different arguments that support H&M pursuing globalization. For the most significant factors, H&M is obviously buying centrally in Stockholm. Stockholm becomes the central purchasing office of H&M. Gaining economies of scale is one of its goal of H&M either. To fast-fashion industry, speed of introducing new products to changing environment is very important to meet the latest trends. As mentioned before, advanced technology is applied in H&M which can improve the quality of products and service. Customers around the world behave in the same way as H&M has been opening over 2,000 store s in 2010 which implies customers in different countries accept the products and services H&M delivered. These factors globalizes H&M. On the other hand, pricing strategy being adopted by H&M has been coherent across borders as it focused on offering the best price to all customers in different countries sticky with the spirit of itself.There is no big difference in the distribution channels as it follows its own practice by distributing from distribution centers to warehouses to the stores. business concern regulations and contexts also does not differ much from place to place. Customers contact and after-sale service are less focused by H&M which suggests low customization. Transportation is controlled by the external contractors which means localoperations are not that essential. Concluded from the local factors, H&M is not likely to pursue localization. Furthermore, decision-making like buying and logistics are centralized at the mentality Office which confirms its position u sing a global strategy. Global strategy also has another characteristic which offers standardized products to different countries. In my signalize of view, global strategy is very suitable for H&M in future development. In fast-fashion industry. H&M belongs to a vibrant player which should aim to be a global leader.Also, it has already been achieving few maneuver like economies of scale and increasing its bargaining power. However, there are several benefits and risks associated with the global strategy. By applying this strategy, H&M can achieve global economies of scale and brand consistency. Expanding the target customers as the whole world, independent management is also treated as its strength. For the risks that H&M might be facing, standardized products may not meet all customers needs as it might be lack of sufficient innovative ideas to suit everyone. Moreover, centralized decisions will be lack of innovation and creativity, though decentralization is now encouraged in H&M .

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Workshop

Should you use more reliable suppliers and how? What re the pros and cons ? Inventory cost higher(prenominal) or material cost go forth be affected ? promptly Blush wants shrinking service windows . How can you help In achieving this finished a better procurement strategy ? SC Manager (SCM) arrive at a complete and detailed supply chain diagram from suppliers of inscrutable to delivery of material to AGAR. Try to identify from the diagram the practical itinerary to improve your logistical performance and shorten the delivery time to construe Guards requirements. Discuss with other managers if they can support your suggestion.Manufacturing Manager (MM) As a manufacturing manager, you receive materials from outside suppliers and manufacturing starts under your supervision. You then deliver the finished items to warehouse before sending to AGAR. Can you suggest some process re-engineering or any Improvement that you can suggest to help seemly the requirement of Finish ? As the m ain contact with Finish, how can you propose to your chief executive officer that racy needs major business operations improvement to meet the request of AGAR otherwise DEEP will lose this major customer that they cannot afford to see this happen.You need to ether information from your managers and submit several key points and write on a short design to present to the class. You need to identify the quality criteria and order winning criteria of DEEP to convince that AGAR should continue the partnership with DEEP. Time Frame of shop Time Activity Remark 6. 00 6. 30 Deep reading of the cause Group discussion to clear some points described in the showcase 6. 30 7. 00 Each role considers the issues that they need to address and make good word SEEM is to collect information and provide advice if needed 7. 00 -7. 30Thorough discussion of lowest report SEEM leads the team to finalize the recommendations report for later entry 7. 30 7. 45 Short break 7. 45 9. 00 Presentation from the 10 groups Other groups critique the presentation with marks (from 1 to 9 marks) 9. 00 9. 15 Score counting The champion group will get 10% more mark in their case report assignment one at a time 9. 15 9. 45 General review of overall performance Grades for Groups deterrent example Group 1 will grade the other 9 groups to deal the marks of 1 to 9 as shown below. The group with highest mark will be the champion.

Incomplete related Literature Essay

According to Aquino (2005), importance of computer application is change magnitude day by day. Nowadays we cant stop the innovation, engineering science help us from living. Lacks of engravement system in enlightens can preface to chaos ant troubles as stated by Ace Adrian (2011). Students leave alone be confused on what they should do to be able to enroll that is why such systems is extremely useful in the way that it retrieving snappy information of the students. Without it can lead difficulty both the administration of school and student in enrollment processes.Many countries nowadays, especially the developing nations argon challenged by the rapid technological changes. This has radically changed the living and cut backing styles of the accurate society. This transformation has been driven partly by rapid technological innovation. In the 20th century saw the rise of the industrial revolution with powered machines intensifying and expanding human productive power, the 21 st century was characterized by the take in of machine-powered flight and the human creativity even more made affirmable new ways by which humans could live and work together( capital of Seychelles L. Tinio, 2002) . Transformation of manual enrollment to a automated and now into sack up based automation is one example of what has driven partly by rapid technological innovation.Technology innovation had influenced mans work from data processing, business transaction, research planning and monitoring. Web applications are public due to ubiquity of its application. Significant advantage of building a vane application to support a standard browser feature is the efficacy to perform as specified, regardless of the operating system installed on a given client (Bacala & Reanno, 2009).A web- bases enrollment system has featured that ache most of academic institution systems needs and requirements. This includes govern modules for students registration, enrollment, grade management a nd payment that are necessary to operate a school.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Cassius Domino Effect

Cassius Domino Effect The overlord lightning that rules our lives has always made us both the protagonist and the victim. In William Shakespeares tragedy, Julius Caesar, he focuses on the actions and results in the play that occur in a domino effect, with characters that set forth fifty-fiftyts that lead to great suffering. In Julius Caesar, Cassius is the tragical figure who contributes to the hatful of the conspirators as a whole, but through the reverent lighting, matters could not be helped.Cassiuss personality leads to his, and galore(postnominal) others, fatal downfall. Cassiuss is seen as the leader of the conspirators, the manipulative master behind the cruel plan. He, with many a(prenominal) others, disdain Caesar for his arrogance, yet Cassius encompasses the same exact trait. His arrogance is shown in make I, when he and Brutus are talking, and Cassius notices the unease in Brutus eyes when they believe Caesar is crowned. He says, I was born as free as Caesar, (1. 2, 104).In this speech Cassius is seek to convey the idea that Brutus is as good as Caesar so that Brutus testament be more inclined to join the conspiracy, but Cassius uses the first equivalence of Caesar to explain that Caesar is no unwrap than he. His cunning, manipulative nature bleeds through in his very first speech, his arrogance is clearly shown and his motives laid down. Cassius jealousy leads to his incompatibility of Caesar. Only Caesars death being the answer to Cassius insecurities. The cunning economic consumption Cassius practices affects everybody in the play.Cassius manipulation so purely spoken by Brutus when he proclaims, What dangers would you lead me, Cassius/That you would have me seek into myself/ For that which is not in me? (1. 2, 69-71). Brutus jealousy of Caesar had not yet progressed to the level of malevolence, but as Brutus said Cassius spurns him on egotistically to mold him into what bene adjoins him the around. Brutus is troubled at first, uns ure what to do, and his odd behavior aggravates Portia, do her to grieve because of the knowledge she does not know.Once the conspiracy is revealed to her she becomes edgy, and the arrival of Octavius sends her into a fit of stress which ends with her swallowing fire. Caesars death is the main source of suffering, but Caesars curse is not because of his death. His suffering is revealed in the moments before he dies, he utters the close memorable line in history, he cries, Et tu Brute? (3. 1, 85). This is the cause of Caesars complete death, the death of not just his body but of his trust.Caesar could grasp the betrayal of the other senators, because that is politics, but the betrayal of someone he viewed as a friend, someone he loved, destroyed him. Antonys speech, causing the most wide spread wave of despair, leads the Romans to exclaim, O noble Caesar / O piteous day . . . We will be r eveged, (3. 2, 211-214). Their anger then leads to the suffering of many, unconstipated the innocent, as is exampled with the Poet Cinnas death. The pristine control Cassius prides himself with, slips and turns Cassius into anything but the victor in this war of superiority.After Caesars death Brutus becomes the leading face of the conspirators, leaving Cassius without even the pride of that small feat. Brutus becomes the leading face of the conspirators so now Cassius provokenot even pride himself with that. When Cassius and Brutus fight, thinking the other has deceived them, Cassius falters, Cassius is aweary of the world/ Hated by the ones he loves, braved by his brother/ . . . / Strike as thou didst at Caesar, for I know/ When thou didst hate him worst, thou I lovedst him better/ Than ever thou lovedst Cassius, (4. , 106-119). Cassius jealousy still remains, despite Caesars death. The tonicity of unworthiness still runs deep, he feels like he still cant compare to Caesar and it is tearing him apart. In the end though, through another(prenominal) misunderstanding, Cassius believes that the battle has been lost and his close friend, Titinius has been captured, he exclaims, O coward that I am to live so long/ To see my beat out friend taen before my face (5. 3, 36-37). Ironically as Caesar has lost his best friend so has Cassius, which leads to his conflicted death.In the end Cassius is the conductor of his own suffering. It was Frye who wisely entitle that the tragic heroes seem the inevitable conductors of power, yet they become the both the prick and victim of the divine lighting. Cassius is seen as the leader of the conspirators leading him to contribute to the vision of the conspirators as a whole, but through his choices he causes the suffering of many including himself. Revenge is bittersweet.

Language development in children

All the sepa run ship howevertal of k right offing be controlled by speech. The appropriate drug ab utilise of lyric is primeval to virtu solelyy all aspects of study and neighborly culture. winning and appropriate quarrel communication is in addition closely linked to the single(a)s commit in society, term the in faculty to communicate cl proto(prenominal) hampers and whitethorn near eliminate a someones ability to cope with crimson the simplest trainingal and sociable situations.The humanner in which modernsterren learn to understand and winningly communicate by dint of quarrel is among the closely crucial questions studied by psychologists. The appropriate use of terminology is central to virtually all aspects of learn and social increment. Successful and appropriate manner of speaking communication is also closely linked to the individuals place in society, while the un dramatic event offness to communicate clearly hampers and may virtually eliminate a persons ability to cope with horizontal the simplest educational and social situations.Traditionally, mental ac ascertains of language development confuse been essential by theorists who ingest include language accomplishment in their discussions of a habitual acquisition appendage (e.g. Miller and Dollard, 1941 skinner, 1957). mule driver for example, believes that language is learned in gr own verse by hold for peasantren to express approximations of the forms of speech which atomic number 18 ultimately desired and consequently by slack shaping (by parents or other socializing agents) until the square up sounds and fate forms sack be reproduced in appropriate situations with a mellow direct of fidelity. In contrast, some psycholinguists (e.g. Chomsky, 1959 Fodor, 1966) have cogently argued that operant discipline possibleness tooshie non adequately account for complex verbal behavior. Chomsky (1959) offers the following pregnant critiqu e of a conditioning viewpointit seems quite beyond questions that sisterren beget a considerably deal of their verbal and non-verbal behavior by casual rumination and phoney of s strongeds and other peasantren. It is simply not true that electric razorren earth-closet learn language only by means of meticulous care on the part of cock-a-hoops who manu eventure their verbal repertoire through and through careful differential gear backing, though it may be that such care is often the impost in schoolman families.It is a common observation that a young boor of immigrant parents may learn a second language in the streets, from other baberen, with staggering rapidity, and that his speech may be completely smooth and correct to the stand allophone A pincer may pick up a large part of his vocabulary and observe for sentence expression from television, from reading, from listening to adults, etc. Even a very young baby bird who has not stock- settle carry out pul l aheadd a minimal repertoire from which to form bare-ass utterances may feign a word quite well on an early try, with no attempt on the part of his parents to school it to him (p. 42). legion(predicate) samples have now disclosed that principles for generating novel responses can be acquired through the observation of others (for example, Bandura & McDonald, 1963 Bandura & Mischel, 1965). If principles of language usage, quite than mere words can be shown to be acquired through observational larn, then this would provide at to the lowest degree a incomplete(p) account of the adjoin of language acquisition.The classic experiment in this sweep was conducted by Bandura and Harris (1966). They were interested whether second-grade children could make up sentences that include prepositional phrases and the inactive voice. The children were tested first during a base rate period and then again after some form of intervene training.The endpoints demonstrated that the children showed a greater increment in the production of the relevant construction in their sentences (than did the control group) if they were exposed to a combination of (1) an adult models production of sentence3s with and without the relevant construction (2) reward to some(prenominal) the model and the perceiver for sentences containing the relevant construction and (3) attention-focusing instructions.This study clearly suggested that childrens language productions readiness be modified through modeling in conjunction with other procedures. It is believably, however, that the children in Bandura and Harris experiment had been exposed to prepositional phrases and the static voice more times in their lives prior to entering the experimental situation. in that respectfore, the question still re importanted as to whether children could actually acquire new or novel language rules as a function of observation.Indeed, language is important and in fact, traditionally, psychological ac counts of language development have been developed by theorists who have include language learn in their discussions of a general acquisition process (Miller & Dollard, 1941 Skinner, 1957). Skinner, for example, believes that language is learned, in large measure by waiting for children to emit approximations of the forms of speech which are ultimately desired and then by gradual shaping (by parents or other socializing agents) until the correct sounds and sentence forms can be reproduced in appropriate situations with a high degree of fidelity.This is a fair representation of the interrelationship between comprehension, emotion, precedent and language, for numerous experiments have now disclosed that principles for generating novel responses can be acquired through the observation of others (Bandura & McDonald, 1963) If principles of language usage, rather than mere words, can be shown to be acquired through observational learning, then this would provide at least(prenominal) a partial account of the process of language acquisition.In the compass of linguistic diversity, researches discover that in spite of enormous impact that language has on childrens schooling, lack of side of meat skills alone cannot explain the unequal academic proceeding of students. It is tempting to fall back on this chronicle and thus count on simple solutions to solve the problem. Cuban students, for example, have the highest educational level of all Latinos, yet they are the more or less likely to speak Spanish at home. (Valdivieso & Davis, 1988).However, the fact that students speak Spanish is treat by legion(predicate) teachers as a problem. There is also attest that teachers interact more negatively with students who do not speak English than with those who do. (U.S. General news report Office, bilingual procreation A bracing image at the look for Evidence, Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1987). Thus, this is where the emotion and perce ption side draw in the picture. Because if this is the case, then the language dominance of students is not the real rejoinder rather, the way in which teachers and schools view their language may be even more crucial to student achievement in acquiring recognizeledge.How language and language use are perceived by the schools and whether modifications in the platform and imparting of knowledge are made as a will are important factors to keep in mind. The fact that English speakers seldom have the opportunity to enter bilingual education programs reinforces stead of these programs. This is where the methodological analysis of knowledge is more important than the knowledge itself. agree to Jean Piaget, what differentiates adult male from animals is humans ability to do typic abstract abstract eyeshot Piagets Theory and this forms the basis for the constructivist speculation in learning and instruction Ibid.. During his experiments, he observed that children think differentl y from adult and reception questions differently, alone it does not mean that children are dumb Ibid..Piagets theory had two major(ip) aspects the process and full points of cognitive development Ibid.. The process of learning and acquiring watchword of children is make ford by schemas, which is actually the childs representation to the world. The processes used by children to attain equilibrium between their schemas and the real environment are trying on and assimilation Ibid.. It is assimilation when a child tries to fit cubes into square holes during playtime. It is adaptation when a child tries to push harder a heavier play cart with classmate- passengers than a cart with no one riding.As a child grows, schemas start more complex Ibid.. The stages in cognitive development of a child are divided into three sensorimotor infancy, pre-operational stage (toddler and early childhood), and cover operational stage (elementary and early adolescence). During infancy, a child onl y recognizes an inclination when he or she sees it Giants. During toddler hood and early child hood, a child knows the direction of the right and left of an object, scarcely the child cannot properly think relative to that object Ibid..At the concrete operational stage, a child becomes more logical in their judgment of the world. It is important that teachers of pre-school and elemental schools learn to challenge abilities of children Piagets Theory. Discovery learning and supporting the underdeveloped interest of the child are two immemorial instructional techniques Ibid. to attend children understand the world more.Children construct knowledge, learning can lead development, development cannot be separated from its social context, and language plays a central berth in cognitive development are the main themes of Vygotskys developmental theory Giants. Children construct knowledge in a way that Piaget had expound it Bodrova 2005. A childs learning can be calculated in a l evel of independent doance and level of back up murder Ibid. The vault of heaven between these measures will result to the Zone of proximal Development (ZPD) which increases as learning occurs Ibid.Both content and processes of thought is pertinacious by the culture Ibid.. Higher functions in man such as focused attention, deliberate memory and symbolic thought are passed down thru teaching Ibid.. Learning always involves external be being change into internal processes through the means of language Ibid.. Vygotskys principle taught that teachers should know the item learning postulate of a child and determine what most appropriate intervention could be done.The ZPD would eventually be filled-up if the learning of necessity were met thru proper teaching implement. One good practice was to devise an sagaciousness questionnaire that would equally gauge independent performance and assisted performance, and from there, the ZPD can be quantitatively determined. By identifying the gap qualitatively, the learning needs of a child would be revealed. Moreover, teachers should also know how to develop a childs attention to focus, improve childs memory, to teach children think symbolically, and use a language game that children understand.Meanwhile, ones cultural and social upbringing affects the way a person views this. There are no assumptions or deducing involved here. One can curse the information by just looking again at the dizzying represent of program alter inbreds in bilingual education, each claiming to be more no-hit than the others. In general, most research has found that bilingual programs of all kinds are exitive not only in teaching students content area knowledge in their native language but also in teaching them English. This has been prove time and again to be the case in research analyses and specific program reviews (Hakuta, 1990).According to Hakuta, the most significant effect of bilingual education may not be that it promotes bili ngualism in general, which he claims it does not, but rather that it gives some measure of official public status to the political jumble of language minorities, primarily Hispanics. He suggests that raising the status of these childrens native languages contributes to their opportunities for friendships with English-speaking children.Similarly, Erik Erikson as psychoanalyst taught that any person, child or adult faces specific life crisis that they have to resolve in establish to perform their tasks (Atkinson 1993). During early childhood or preschool, a child develops an ability to train activities (Ibid. 118) teachers have to learn how to encourage or discourage them in order that the child would not feel inadequate.During middle child hood or elementary, children learns various skills such as reading and writing, but they have to interact socially with others in order to feel successful or competent, other than they would feel inferior. During this time, a teacher should co nstantly but reasonably laudation a child for a job well done. The LOGO programme used with young children was believed to be supported by Eriksons theory on the psychosocial stages (Gillespie and Beisser, 2001, p. 230).LOGO is a computer scheduling language developed by Dr. Seymour Papert in 1980s that is loaded with MicroWorlds software. With the MicroWorlds, a child creates his own animated graphics thru self-directed activity and one by one explores cause and effect. broad children ample time to spend with LOGO programming, structure and constructing encourages children to work without making them feel guilty which makes smooth the transition of a child in his guilty-prone period (Ibid. p. 234). The same activities enable a child also to acquire mastery of the game in order to feel competent.REFERENCESAtkinson, R.L., Richard C. Atkinson, Edward E. Smith and Daryl J. Bem (1993). knowledgeability to Psychology 11th ed.. United States Harcourt Brace CollegePublishers.Bandura, A. & McDonald F.J. (1963). The influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping childrens object lesson judgments. Journal of antidromic and Social Psychology. 67, 274-281.Bodrova, Elena (2005). Vygotskys Developmental Theory An Introduction. In DavidsonFilms Homepage. Retrieved Oct. 29, 2006, fromhttp//www.davidsonfilms.com/develope.htmChomsky, N. Review of B.F. Skinners Verbal Behavior (1959).Language, 35, 26-58.Gillespie, C., Beisser, W. (2001). Developmentally abstractLOGO computing device Programming with Young Children. Retrieved Oct. 29, 2006,http//www.aace.org/dl/files/ITCE/ITCE2001-229.pdfHakuta, K. (1990). Bilingualism and Bilingual Education A look for Perspective, no. 1Washington, DC National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Spring.Miller, N.E. & Dollard, J. Social learning and imitation. bare-ass Haven Yale UniversityPress, 1941.Piagets Theory of cognitive Development. In educational Psychology InteractiveHomepage. Retrieved October 29 , 2006, fromhttp//chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html.Skinner, B. F. Verbal behavior. New York Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.U.S. General report Office (1987). Bilingual Education A New Look at the ResearchEvidence, Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office.Valdivieso, R. and Davis, C. (1988). U.S. Hispanics Challenging Issues for the ninetiesWashington D.D. state Trends and Public Policy. Language development in childrenAll the other ways of knowing are controlled by language. The appropriate use of language is central to virtually all aspects of learning and social development. Successful and appropriate language communication is also closely linked to the individuals place in society, while the inability to communicate clearly hampers and may virtually eliminate a persons ability to cope with even the simplest educational and social situations.The manner in which children learn to understand and successfully communicate through language is among the most i mportant questions studied by psychologists. The appropriate use of language is central to virtually all aspects of learning and social development. Successful and appropriate language communication is also closely linked to the individuals place in society, while the inability to communicate clearly hampers and may virtually eliminate a persons ability to cope with even the simplest educational and social situations.Traditionally, psychological accounts of language development have been developed by theorists who have included language learning in their discussions of a general acquisition process (e.g. Miller and Dollard, 1941 Skinner, 1957). Skinner for example, believes that language is learned in large measure by waiting for children to emit approximations of the forms of speech which are ultimately desired and then by gradual shaping (by parents or other socializing agents) until the correct sounds and sentence forms can be reproduced in appropriate situations with a high degr ee of fidelity. In contrast, some psycholinguists (e.g. Chomsky, 1959 Fodor, 1966) have cogently argued that operant learning theory cannot adequately account for complex verbal behavior. Chomsky (1959) offers the following pregnant critique of a conditioning viewpointit seems quite beyond questions that children acquire a good deal of their verbal and non-verbal behavior by casual observation and imitation of adults and other children. It is simply not true that children can learn language only through meticulous care on the part of adults who shape their verbal repertoire through careful differential reinforcement, though it may be that such care is often the custom in academic families.It is a common observation that a young child of immigrant parents may learn a second language in the streets, from other children, with amazing rapidity, and that his speech may be completely fluent and correct to the last allophone A child may pick up a large part of his vocabulary and feel for s entence structure from television, from reading, from listening to adults, etc. Even a very young child who has not yet acquired a minimal repertoire from which to form new utterances may imitate a word quite well on an early try, with no attempt on the part of his parents to teach it to him (p. 42).Numerous experiments have now disclosed that principles for generating novel responses can be acquired through the observation of others (for example, Bandura & McDonald, 1963 Bandura & Mischel, 1965). If principles of language usage, rather than mere words can be shown to be acquired through observational learning, then this would provide at least a partial account of the process of language acquisition.The classic experiment in this area was conducted by Bandura and Harris (1966). They were interested whether second-grade children could make up sentences that included prepositional phrases and the passive voice. The children were tested first during a base rate period and then again af ter some form of intervening training.The results demonstrated that the children showed a greater increment in the production of the relevant construction in their sentences (than did the control group) if they were exposed to a combination of (1) an adult models production of sentence3s with and without the relevant construction (2) reward to both the model and the observer for sentences containing the relevant construction and (3) attention-focusing instructions.This study clearly suggested that childrens language productions might be modified through modeling in conjunction with other procedures. It is likely, however, that the children in Bandura and Harris experiment had been exposed to prepositional phrases and the passive voice many times in their lives prior to entering the experimental situation. Therefore, the question still remained as to whether children could actually acquire new or novel language rules as a function of observation.Indeed, language is important and in f act, traditionally, psychological accounts of language development have been developed by theorists who have included language learning in their discussions of a general acquisition process (Miller & Dollard, 1941 Skinner, 1957). Skinner, for example, believes that language is learned, in large measure by waiting for children to emit approximations of the forms of speech which are ultimately desired and then by gradual shaping (by parents or other socializing agents) until the correct sounds and sentence forms can be reproduced in appropriate situations with a high degree of fidelity.This is a fair representation of the interrelationship between perception, emotion, reason and language, for numerous experiments have now disclosed that principles for generating novel responses can be acquired through the observation of others (Bandura & McDonald, 1963) If principles of language usage, rather than mere words, can be shown to be acquired through observational learning, then this would provide at least a partial account of the process of language acquisition.In the area of linguistic diversity, researches reveal that in spite of enormous impact that language has on childrens schooling, lack of English skills alone cannot explain the poor academic achievement of students. It is tempting to fall back on this explanation and thus count on simple solutions to solve the problem. Cuban students, for example, have the highest educational level of all Latinos, yet they are the most likely to speak Spanish at home. (Valdivieso & Davis, 1988).However, the fact that students speak Spanish is treated by many teachers as a problem. There is also evidence that teachers interact more negatively with students who do not speak English than with those who do. (U.S. General Accounting Office, Bilingual Education A New Look at the Research Evidence, Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1987). Thus, this is where the emotion and perception side come in the picture. Because if this is the case, then the language dominance of students is not the real issue rather, the way in which teachers and schools view their language may be even more crucial to student achievement in acquiring knowledge.How language and language use are perceived by the schools and whether modifications in the curriculum and imparting of knowledge are made as a result are important factors to keep in mind. The fact that English speakers rarely have the opportunity to enter bilingual education programs reinforces status of these programs. This is where the methodology of knowledge is more important than the knowledge itself.According to Jean Piaget, what differentiates humans from animals is humans ability to do symbolic abstract reasoning Piagets Theory and this forms the basis for the constructivist theory in learning and instruction Ibid.. During his experiments, he observed that children think differently from adult and answer questions differently, but it does not mean t hat children are dumb Ibid..Piagets theory had two major aspects the process and stages of cognitive development Ibid.. The process of learning and acquiring intelligence of children is influenced by schemas, which is actually the childs representation to the world. The processes used by children to attain equilibrium between their schemas and the real environment are accommodation and assimilation Ibid.. It is assimilation when a child tries to fit cubes into square holes during playtime. It is accommodation when a child tries to push harder a heavier play cart with classmate- passengers than a cart with no one riding.As a child grows, schemas become more complex Ibid.. The stages in cognitive development of a child are divided into three sensorimotor infancy, pre-operational stage (toddler and early childhood), and concrete operational stage (elementary and early adolescence). During infancy, a child only recognizes an object when he or she sees it Giants. During toddler hood and early child hood, a child knows the direction of the right and left of an object, but the child cannot correctly think relative to that object Ibid..At the concrete operational stage, a child becomes more logical in their understanding of the world. It is important that teachers of pre-school and primary schools learn to challenge abilities of children Piagets Theory. Discovery learning and supporting the developing interest of the child are two primary instructional techniques Ibid. to help children understand the world more.Children construct knowledge, learning can lead development, development cannot be separated from its social context, and language plays a central role in cognitive development are the main themes of Vygotskys developmental theory Giants. Children construct knowledge in a way that Piaget had described it Bodrova 2005. A childs learning can be measured in a level of independent performance and level of assisted performance Ibid. The area between these measures w ill result to the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which increases as learning occurs Ibid.Both content and processes of thought is determined by the culture Ibid.. Higher functions in man such as focused attention, deliberate memory and symbolic thought are passed down thru teaching Ibid.. Learning always involves external experience being transformed into internal processes through the means of language Ibid.. Vygotskys principle taught that teachers should know the specific learning needs of a child and determine what most appropriate intervention could be done.The ZPD would eventually be filled-up if the learning needs were met thru proper teaching practice. One good practice was to devise an assessment questionnaire that would equally gauge independent performance and assisted performance, and from there, the ZPD can be quantitatively determined. By identifying the gap qualitatively, the learning needs of a child would be revealed. Moreover, teachers should also know how to d evelop a childs attention to focus, improve childs memory, to teach children think symbolically, and use a language game that children understand.Meanwhile, ones cultural and social upbringing affects the way a person views this. There are no assumptions or deducing involved here. One can verify the information by just looking again at the dizzying array of program alternatives in bilingual education, each claiming to be more successful than the others. In general, most research has found that bilingual programs of all kinds are effective not only in teaching students content area knowledge in their native language but also in teaching them English. This has been proven time and again to be the case in research analyses and specific program reviews (Hakuta, 1990).According to Hakuta, the most significant effect of bilingual education may not be that it promotes bilingualism in general, which he claims it does not, but rather that it gives some measure of official public status to th e political struggle of language minorities, primarily Hispanics. He suggests that raising the status of these childrens native languages contributes to their opportunities for friendships with English-speaking children.Similarly, Erik Erikson as psychoanalyst taught that any person, child or adult faces specific life crisis that they have to resolve in order to perform their tasks (Atkinson 1993). During early childhood or preschool, a child develops an ability to initiate activities (Ibid. 118) teachers have to learn how to encourage or discourage them in order that the child would not feel inadequate.During middle child hood or elementary, children learns various skills such as reading and writing, but they have to interact socially with others in order to feel successful or competent, otherwise they would feel inferior. During this time, a teacher should constantly but reasonably praise a child for a job well done. The LOGO programming used with young children was believed to be supported by Eriksons theory on the psychosocial stages (Gillespie and Beisser, 2001, p. 230).LOGO is a computer programming language developed by Dr. Seymour Papert in 1980s that is loaded with MicroWorlds software. With the MicroWorlds, a child creates his own animated graphics thru self-directed activity and independently explores cause and effect. Giving children ample time to spend with LOGO programming, building and constructing encourages children to work without making them feel guilty which makes smooth the transition of a child in his guilty-prone period (Ibid. p. 234). The same activities enable a child also to acquire mastery of the game in order to feel competent.REFERENCESAtkinson, R.L., Richard C. Atkinson, Edward E. Smith and Daryl J. Bem (1993).Introduction to Psychology 11th ed.. United States Harcourt Brace CollegePublishers.Bandura, A. & McDonald F.J. (1963). The influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping childrens moral judgments. J ournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 67, 274-281.Bodrova, Elena (2005). Vygotskys Developmental Theory An Introduction. In DavidsonFilms Homepage. Retrieved Oct. 29, 2006, fromhttp//www.davidsonfilms.com/develope.htmChomsky, N. Review of B.F. Skinners Verbal Behavior (1959).Language, 35, 26-58.Gillespie, C., Beisser, W. (2001). Developmentally AppropriateLOGO Computer Programming with Young Children. Retrieved Oct. 29, 2006,http//www.aace.org/dl/files/ITCE/ITCE2001-229.pdfHakuta, K. (1990). Bilingualism and Bilingual Education A Research Perspective, no. 1Washington, DC National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Spring.Miller, N.E. & Dollard, J. Social learning and imitation. New Haven Yale UniversityPress, 1941.Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development. In Educational Psychology InteractiveHomepage. Retrieved October 29, 2006, fromhttp//chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html.Skinner, B. F. Verbal behavior. New York Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.U.S. General Accou nting Office (1987). Bilingual Education A New Look at the ResearchEvidence, Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office.Valdivieso, R. and Davis, C. (1988). U.S. Hispanics Challenging Issues for the 1990sWashington D.D. Population Trends and Public Policy.