Monday, January 28, 2019

Home School vs. Public School Essay

aiming is an important decision in educating babyren. In todays world more and more families be choosing to home schoolho drop their squirtren. While there ar advantages and disadvantages to both options. The major factors in deciding which option is best are the instruction environment, the plan, and see the ask of the fry or s deemrren.Advantages internal School acquisition environment. pincerren at bottom the home school environment are more likely to be calm and comfortable in his or her home. The barbarianren will non deplete the match pres authoritative of the national school, but the pip-squeakren will have peer pressure from his or her siblings. The children may likewise show competiveness to unrivaled another. A child will aroma safer in his or her home ring which will give them a better success rate in his or her knowledge and testing scores (Public School vs. Home School). In a recent study children that are home schooled, test in reading, langu age, and math are in the 88th percentile, whereas public school children are in the 50th percentile (Home School Domination). Children are more comfortable with his or her family which let the child have less fear and every last(predicate)ow them to centering and study more. The beneficial factor of home school is the child or children can crap a bond with his or her family, and a tightness that lets the child or children learn at his or her own pace, and feel comfortable with his or her learning style, for there is no right or wrong way to learn. Curriculum.There are many types of home school curriculums a provoke can choose to t sever totallyy their child or children. In order to choose the right option the parent addresses the child or children and makes a choice based on his or her contains. about of the curriculum options are the traditional come up, the unit study approach, the Charlotte Mason approach, and the un- information approach ( disciplineal Philosophies Defi ned). Curriculum can be taught as long as a child call for, when it is best suited to learn for the family and the child or children, and how the child learns best (Public School vs. Home School). Home schooling allows for a shorter day, where learning can be taught in a a couple of(prenominal) hours vs. a few days or weeks. The schedule can be modified to the needs of the child or children, field trips can happen more frequently, visits to museums and cunning galleries can be offered, and daily activities outside the home can create hands on learning of the child or childrens environment. clash the needs of the child. Home school offers a great advantage of the child or childrens needs cosmos meet on a daily basis. Parents can believe the time to sit one to one with the child and allow adequate time to teach them and make sure the child is understanding what is being taught. Some children may not need one to one and excel at a rapid pace and at home the parent can make sur e the child has adequate amounts of learning so the child does not get bored. The parent can also offer a wider variety of activities, creativity, and unique ways to teach their child or children (Home Schooling vs. Public Schooling The Pros and Cons of Home Schooling). Some children may learn to read in certain positions or places where they feel comfortable and safe, some children may learn counting with victimize cars vs. counting cubes, and some children may learn science with experiments. These are all things okay to allow a child to do while being taught at home. These are all options to offer the best possible learning, for a child and meeting his or her needs.Advantage Public SchoolLearning Environment. Public schools offer children the ability to interact and work with others (Advantages of Public Schools). It provides academics and skills to use and apply for interactions with peers (Advantages of Public Schools). Children in a public school consideration have more expo sure to a variety of teachers and curriculum, such as foreign language, art, home economics, shop, welding, physical education, drama, music etc. (Advantages of Public Schools). The higher(prenominal) number in students gives opportunities to work in groups, do projects, and team sports. The learning environment gives an understanding of diverse backgrounds and the ability to build dynamic skills for the accepted world (Advantages of Public Schools). Curriculum. Most states are adopting the common core curriculum for the public school establishment. The Common Core resign Standards provide enlighten and consistent learning goals to help prepare students for college, career, and life (Common Core State Standards). The curriculum of language arts, literacy, and math offered in public schools offer staple classes to advance classes. A familiar focus on the curriculum is talent the students the ability to learn with a strong foundation in prefatory skills for life and work success (Wyoming Public Schools).Not only is the public school system focusing on language arts, literacy, and math they also offer a wider variety of extra-curricular classes that help children learn. This gives the children more experiences of what to expect in higher education. Meeting the needs of the child. Public schools have the No Child Left behind Act. This has allowed the public school system to treat each child as an individual and as a whole child (National Education Association). It requires the teaching staff to address each childs physical, emotional health, and well-being. It requires assurance that students are actively engaged in change experiences and settings inside and outside the classroom (National Education Association). The public education system is critical to democracy and its purpose, as reflected in this Act, is to maximize the achievement, skills, opportunities, and potential of all students by building upon their strengths and addressing their needs, an d to ensure that all students are prepared to expand in a democratic society and diverse, changing world as knowledgeable, creative, and engaged citizens and lifelong learners. (National Education Association).When a parent is deciding on the education of their child or children there are many factors to take into consideration. While there are many more factors to consider than what you have just read, the decision is ultimately the parents and what fits for their child or children. Home schooling seems to give the more flexible approach and the benefits of that in its self are endless. Public school gives many opportunities that home school may not offer as the child or children get older. In general the facts are what matter most and that is the learning environment, curriculum, and meeting the needs of the child and each one of those are met either in home school or public school.Works CitedNational Education Association. Meeting the needs of a Whole Child. Web. 15 Oct. 2009. P ublic School vs. Home School. Education Bug. Web. 16 Oct. 2014. Public School vs. Home School. Public Schools. Web. 16 Oct. 2014 Preparing the Statess Students for Success. Home. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. Wyoming Public Schools. Wyoming Public Schools. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. Martin, Jaime. Educational Philosophies Defined, patch I Simple Homeschool. Simple Homeschool. 21 Feb. 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. Some enchanting Facts about Home School vs. Public School Home School World. Web. 19 Oct. 2014.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Dostoevsky’s Notes from Underground Essay

Fyodor Dostoevsky is unrivalled of the around influential authors in world literature. This Russian author had written some(prenominal) remarkable novels including Crime and Punish workforcet, The Idiot and Brothers Karamazov. However, before the aforementi nonpareild novels were published, Dostoevsky had already gained ex morsel acclaim and recognition for his work entitled Notes from surreptitious. This novel explores how the give updom of homosexual is undermined by the atmosphere of rationality that dominated the 17th and 18th centuries. by dint of the novels protagonist, the electron tube homosexual, Dostoevsky illustrates how real emancipation is bitifested in the defiance of designer. The period c ei in that respectd the Enlightenment occurred by with(predicate) emerge the 17th and 18th centuries (Marder, Meyer, & axerophthol Wyshak, n. d. ). During this era, author governed over e very endeavor, and was valued above everything else. The period left no room for superstition or foolishness rationality reigned supreme (Marder, Meyer, & ampere Wyshak, n. d. ). Reason was the recalls in which creation and society back fail for the better.European thought was dominated by materialism, liberalism and much importantly, utopianism (Marder, Meyer, & Wyshak, n. d. ). either of these movements were established on the tactile sensation that flat coatable and natural- uprightness theories could establish a over(p) society (Emerson, 1992). Perfection was only attainable through and through the application of conclude and the manifestation of enlightened self-interest (Marder, Meyer, & Wyshak, n. d. ). The prevalence of reason powerfully influenced and inspired Dostoevsky to write Notes from opposition (Marder, Meyer, & Wyshak, n. d. ).However, the novel did non sustain a message hold inable to the intellectual milieu alternatively, it served to criticize its very existence. Notes from surreptitious is make a motionually a res ponse to another text, entitled What Is to be Done? (Marder, Meyer, & Wyshak, n. d. Madden, n. d. ). It was written by N. G. Chernyshevsky and was published in 1863. Chernyshevsky was an guidance of rational egoism, a movement which fervently conceived that perfection of life could be achieved through rationality and enlightenment (Madden, n. d. ). The rational egoists also upheld principles of natural law (Madden, n.d. ). Dostoevsky disagreed with the belief that rationality and enlightenment were the severalizes to perfection. He strongly believed that the temper of man was beyond those two elements. He ac beledged mans cleverness for both the rational and the foolish he even upheld that the irrationality of man was more definite, small-arm the rationality was merely added (Marder, Meyer, & Wyshak, n. d. ). Moreover, Dostoevsky was convinced that laws of nature or the principles of reason were not capable of recognizing human individuality, personality, and more impor tantly, cede allow (Madden, n. d. ).These beliefs are embedded in the novel, a text which Rozanov considers a critique of reason as a office to perfection (as cited in Marder, Meyer, & Wyshak, n. d. ). The novel, in the words of Wasiolek, showed how man can be both rational and irrational, as his actions are the result of the come of his own immunity (as cited in Marder, Meyer, & Wyshak, n. d. ). Hence, the theme of granting immunity in the novel is the period disregard for reason and natural laws. The protagonist of the novel is the Underground mankind, a forty year old man who used to work in civil service (Dostoevsky, 1992).For a protagonist, he is considered an anti-hero (Madden, n. d. ). He is also the antithesis of the time in which he lived he disagreed with utilitarianism, which prevailed during the 19th century. Utilitarianism was characterized by utilizing mathematical mandates and synthetic proofs to equate ones trusts with his topper interests (Madden, n . d. ). The Underground mankind disagrees with this he attests that man wants to exercise his emancipation and could do so regardless if it agrees with his trounce interests or not. If it is mans confide to act irrational, he could. Of course, performing irrational is not in anyones best interest.However, by being irrational, he was truly able to exercise his freedom. Actions based on desires, instead of reason, enable man to be free. Freedom is thus associated with acting without reason. So in an era where reason dominated, the Underground humankind was rather unreasonable. By being unreasonable, he was able to be truly free. In the novel, the Underground gentlemans gentleman asserts that experience deprives one of freedom. Dostoevsky (1992) writes, Science has managed by now to anatomise man to such a degree that we already know that all your pick up, your so-called free will is nothing (p.29). The Underground Man wherefore begins his attack on utilitarianism If someda y they should really discover the formula for all our whims and wishesI mean, what causes them, what laws theyre governed by, how they develop and where they lead in one sideslip or anotherin other words, an actual mathematical formulawhy, whence man will possibly immediately stop needinessWho wants to wish accord to graphs (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 29)? Whims and wishes in this quotation refers to the desires of man. The principles of utilitarianism are marked by analysis of peoples desires.These desires undergo scrutiny, as to get word if these desires agree with what is best for the people. However, the act of wishing does not involve analysis or scrutiny. One can desire something for no apparent reason. One may wish for something that may prove counterproductive in the long run. The exercise of freedom is spontaneous and non-regulated. If one has to base his or her desires from the graphs or formulas of science and math, they would no longer fall under the exercise of freedo m. If one is to desire based on the graphs or formulas, it would not be an act of freedom any more.This is because there is imposition involved the desires are imposed upon by the requirements of science or math. In this situation, the desires of man are dictated by the principles of reason. Thus, freedom disappears upon the use of reason. In the words of the Underground Man, For if desires are one day brought into complete accord with reason, then we shall reason instead of wishing (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 30). The Underground Man continues his argument against utilitarianism by differentiating reason and desires. He statesYou see, gentlemen, reason is unquestionably a fine thing, but reason is no more than reason, and it gives fulfillment only to a mans reasoning capacity, while desires are a manifestation of the whole of lifeI mean the whole of human life, both with its reason and with all its itches and scratches (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 31). In this quotation, the Underground Man aff irms that while reason is important, it is not the most important thing. The desires of man, through which freedom can be exercised, have a much wider oscilloscope than reason. therefore, the desires of man cannot be reduced to graphs and tables because it transcends them.The Underground Man uses the indulgent cay as a symbol of how reason curbs mans freedom He will insist on clinging precisely to his own baseless dreams, his most vulgar folly, solely in order to confirm himself that men are still men, and not piano keys, which may be play by the hands of natural laws themselves, but which are threatened by this very playing to be brought to a state where it will no longer be possible to wish a thing alfresco of graphs and schedules (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 34). Piano keys are pressed to make a sound in the process of playing the piano.These keys cannot produce sound on their own they need to be touched and pressed. The analogy between the man and the piano key is what Dostoevsky used to illustrate his point. By measuring mans desires with the graphs and formulas to determine whether or not it is in their best interests, man becomes a piano key. This is because man comes under the mercy of reason which plays him. To be manipulated by reason is to be bound by its laws therefore, it is not freedom. The Underground Man believes that creation values freedom over reason and best interests (Madden, n. d. ).Freedom means acting out of ones desires or wishes whether or not the act spoken of is irrational or foolish. In the book, the Underground Man manifests his freedom through several examples. He had committed acts contrary to reason, make him a truly free individual. Hence, the Underground Man was successful in escaping the res publica of reason he despises. The book starts with the Underground Mans admission of a fuss. He says, I think that my liver hurts (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 1). Anyone who experiences bother will surely resort to measures to eliminate th at pain. This is because pain is woe, and nobody wants to suffer.In the instance that pain is felt, it is only reasonable that one try ons checkup economic aid by call downing a come to. On the contrary, the Underground Man says, No, sir, I refuse to see a doctor out of spite (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 1). This last is obviously irrational, because he does not want to see a doctor to deal with the pain. In addition, he does not have a binding reason not to go to the doctor. One would presume that he just takes joyfulness in his own pain. A rational man would let this decision as preposterous, as no one ever enjoyed suffering from pain (Madden, n. d.). However, what appears to be a manifestation of masochistic tendencies is actually the Underground Mans exercise of freedom. Reason dictates that when one feels pain, that person should visit the doctor. As was earlier discussed, the Underground Man believes that reason limits freedom, because it only receipts the desires that wo uld be in ones best interests. The tolerance of pain and the derivation of pleasure from it is the Underground Mans way of breaking free from reason. Surely, it is a foolish thing to do, but he does not want to conform to the dictates of reason.He values his freedom, so he refuses to act according to reason. He is a free man he could do as he pleased. Even if it is contrary to his best interests in prolonging such agony, he still does it because he wished to do so. By tolerating pain and deriving pleasure from it, he successful avoids the system of reason. fit in to the Underground Man, I know better than anyone else that I will only harm myself by this, and no one else. And yet, if I dont seek a cure, it is out of spite. My liver hurts? Good, let it hurt still more (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 2)The Underground Man proceeds with his painful endeavor, this time with a toothache. The fourth chapter of the book opens with his jest Ha-ha-ha You will find pleasure in a toothache next And w hy not? There is pleasure in a toothache ache too (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 14). Just like with the liver ache, the Underground Man allows himself to feel the pain of his tooth instead of seeing a dentist. He welcomes the pain, and refuses to seek treatment. A critic of the novel, Mikhaylovsky declares that the Underground Man tortures because he wants to, he likes torture.There is neither reason nor purpose here, and, in the opinion of Dostoevksy, they are not at all necessary, for absolute cruelty is interesting (as cited in Marder, Meyer, & Wyshak, n. d. ). Indeed, this is true. The Underground Man does not subject himself to pain for a reason. In fact, he does so to do away with reason. He refrains from seeking medical treatment because he wants to. By indulging in his desire, he exercises complete freedom. Aside from the aforementioned tolerance of pains, the Underground Man had exercised his freedom through irrationality in other ways. He statesI would feel a certain hidden, mo rbid, unsportsmanlike little pleasure in the acute cognisance that I had once again committed something vile that day, that what had been make could no longer be undone and I would gnaw and gnaw at myself in silenceuntil the bitterness would finally begin to turn into a kind of shameful, damnable sweetness (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 7). In this excerpt, the Underground Man expresses how he had realized his evil ways by contemplating what he had done. However, instead of wallowing in guilt, the realization ends up being a source of pleasure. How did the Underground Man manifest his freedom through this?The purveyors of rationality would insist that those who know what is in their best interests would not resort to baseness or frivolity. The Underground Man was aware of vileness of his actions in a way, he was aware it was not in his best interests. However, he did not feel a esthesis of guilt. The realization of his action that started with bitterness eventually became that of sweetne ss. He knew what he had done was bad, but this does not change the fact that he derived pleasure from it. His reception to such vile deeds set him apart from what reason dictates as proper.Because he did not follow the dictates of reason, he had exercised his own freedom through defiance. Reason makes one feel burdened when one commits a fouled or vile action. It supposes that rational ways should be observed, and a nasty or vile action is never rational. He sights an example when one is forced to apologize for a nasty deed. The Underground Man says Generally, I could never endure saying, Forgive me, Papa, I wont do it againand not because I was incapable of saying it, but, on the contrary, perhaps precisely because I was all too capable of it.And how I did it (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 16) In this passage, the Underground Man expressed disagreement with repentance. He believes that one should not apologize for doing something. He finds apologies as deceiving the claim to never do an a ct considered vile again seems insincere. In our freedom, we are all capable of doing these acts. regardless if they are rational or irrational, we all have the capacity to act according to our own free will. The claim I wont do it again is quite fraudulent, as it is quite understood that anyone can do anything, according to their free will.Thus, it is possible for one to exercise freedom and desire something which is not in ones best interest. According to the Underground Man And what if his advantage on a given critical point not only may, but must, lie exactly in choosing for himself the harmful rather than the advantageous? And if this is so, if there can be such an occasion, then the entire rule is shattered to smithereens (Dostoevsky, 1992, p. 22). The rule spoken of here is the belief that man would choose what is in his best interests. Again, the exercise of freedom lies in choosing or desiring something regardless of their nature.In the above quotation, the Underground Ma n affirms that there will be instances wherein man will choose what is harmful, instead of what is useful, to him. The arcminute such situation arises, the principle of reason will be disproved. The Underground Man does not believe in the principle that man will act according to what is in his best interests. Neither does he believe that mans desires can be reduced to graphs of science nor formulas of mathematics. The opinion of freedom for the Underground Man is that which is contrary to the dictates of reason.He does not acknowledge that man will commit acts that are in tune with his best interests. This would be a violation of his freedom, as the freedom presupposes ones capacity for both the rational and the irrational. If one chooses to commit an irrational act, he is merely exercising his freedom. Did the Underground Man succeed in escaping the realm of reason he so despised? The answer is yes. His tolerance of pain and derivation of pleasure from suffering were direct defia nce to reason. He had rendered himself in all liberated from the atmosphere of rationality.He did and thought as he pleased, whether or not it was in his best interests. Indeed, he had escaped, and is completely free. REFERENCES Dostoevsky, F. (1992). Notes from Underground (M. Ginsburg, Trans. ). impudently York Bantam. (Original work published in 1864). Madden, C. (n. d. ). SparkNote on Notes from Underground. Retrieved March 29, 2008, from http//www. sparknotes. com/lit/ pipe/ Marder, J. , Meyer, M. , & Wyshak, F. (n. d. ). Dostoevskys Notes from Underground Study Guide. Retrieved March 29, 2008, from http//community. middlebury. edu/beyer/courses/previous/ru351/novels/UGMan/ugman. hypertext markup language

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Group development

This abbreviation is about the assembly development phases- forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. These five stages impart attention me turn as a group and as a team member. Forming is fetching time to shake to know individually other and picking a team dealer. Storming is when each team member has an opinion in what theyll do in the group proposal, c ar choosing what p machination of the group assignment theyll have. Norming is communion ideas as a group as the group begins to form they number 1 focusing in their own assign wrick and start works to create the project.Performing is when the team has got to know & trust each other well. Theyll be able to review the project as a team and if they have disagreement theyll be able to fix them as a group. Adjourning is when the project is coming to an end and the team has work rocky for this last stage and know their work was a success a celebration may happen as the groups work pays off. The differences between a group and a team argon that a team is larger than a group. A team begins a strong attracter to lead the team. A team invites the best players to win the big win.Theyll need the strongest players, best players, and the commit players. A group can be anybody thats willing to work together as a group to help with the work. Anybody can be in a group small or tall old or young. A group doesnt take strong players precisely commit worker. A group takes a leader to lead the team and the leader will get them to the end. In the setoff group sections werent all that bad until high school started. I wasnt very honest with group projects since I was a kinda person and didnt commutate much. My strengths in a group project would be my creativity in art.Im a frank artist, making posters and drawing off the pictures in a group project is what Im good at. My best work would have to do with the crevity of art and design it for the fun of it. My weakness or my challenging roles wou ld be pose the group together as a whole. In a look I prefer working alone so I get dressedt have to deal with the other students but, I know this will help me keep learning as it progress. I wouldnt standardised to put myself in a leaders role nor a captains position since they have to give orders I get nerves speaking in front of people and I call back this are some of my challenging roles.My weaknesses are being shy with others but since this is online I think it makes it easy for me to express my thoughts. What makes a great group is when everybody has their own part to work on. For example I like drawing so I will like to have the posters and drawing parts. Everybody necessarily to work together to make this group happen and succeed. The importations in a group project are staying together as a team. on the job(p) in groups help people learn much by putting everyones ideas together and using them in the group project.Two heads are better than one right? I find it impor tant for workers/students to work in groups because it helps them combine the ideas together and turn them into something more. I feel like the group will help me see and learn the positive sides in group projects. As my learning style results Im more likely to work hands on but since the group meetings are online I find it a little difficult. Im good at learning by doing and seeing examples and I will beautiful this changeling and helpful in the same time. Im up for the challenge.

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Bride Song: A Gently Worded Death Essay

Too late for complete, withal late for joy, alike late, too late (1). This is the opening line from the poetry Bride Song, by Christina Rossetti. The verse form is virtually(predicate) a woman (the bride), who lived her life waiting for her love (the groom) to come for her. She died only, never having loved another man, all that meter waiting for him to return, however, he was too late, and returned only in time for her funeral. If you were dying, would you fight for your life? Death may be inevitable, and you do not save to accept it. You can still fight, you can hold on just a bit longer. In the meter, the bride never seemed to fight for her life, barely rather accepted her shoemakers last. It was as if she would rather die than live learned the love of her life would never return to her. Three major poetical devices used in the poem were emblemisation, repetition, and rhyme scheme. One example of symbolism in the poem is Now these are poppies in her locks,/ White poppies she moldiness wear (25-26).The white poppies worn by the bride are a symbol of pure death, meaning when the bride died, she was pure of heart. The poppies could also symbolize gross(a) sleep, implying that rather than seeing death as the end, she (the causality) see it as rest, a sort of dreamless sleep, an escape from her lonesome life. on that point are several examples of repetition in the poem, the repetition of the word crown in stanzas four and six We think her white brows often ached/ at a lower place her crown (38-39) and also Lo we who love weep not today/ exactly crown her royal head (55-56) show great admiration and admire for the bride.This is also shown by the metaphor in which the author refers to the bride as The enthral princess (7). The rhyme scheme is carried out through each stanza however it changes sparingly in the second and sixth stanzas. The general rhyming of the poem tends to institute it the effect of a song, which ties in with the tit le Bride Song. It also helps the poem to flow more smoothly. The metaphors used in the poem also helped to patronize the idea that the bride was lost without her love. The frozen fountain would have leaped,The buds gone on to blow,The warm south wind would have awakedTo melt the snow (17-20)The lines above are a great example of how through imagery and metaphor, Rossetti indicates how everything halt working when the groom was away, and how, had he returned in time, he could have deliver the bride before she too, ceased to function. The melancholic, serious word choice helps to convey the dark measure or theme of the poem. By using words such as enchanted (7), and royal (56) when talking about the bride, it conveys a deep disposition of respect. When the poet says that the groom loitered (3) and trifled (4), it shows that she (the author) thinks the groom was just wasting time, and he did not have a real reason for not being there, he was only if delaying. The repetitive use of the word we in stanza six shows that she (the author) was not alone in the anger towards the groom. The word love is used repeatedly passim the poem, making it clear that it plays a large part in the overall theme.The repeated use of the term Too late in the showtime two lines, conveys the thought that the groom was too late, that had he should have arrived earlier, perchance he energy have saved the bride from her dreary death. It also shows a subtle hint of irritation or anger towards the groom. The poets strength throughout the poem changes depending on who she is talking to or about. When she is talking about the bride, she speaks with nothing but respect and admiration and care towards her. She has nothing but good things to say of her, referring to her several times as royalty. However, during the parts when the poem is directed at the groom, the tone takes on an angered or vinegarish feel. It is clear that the author feels the groom is somewhat to blame in the death of the bride, perhaps thinking that had he been there she might have lived on, happier, or at least died with someone by her side. In the last stanza, when the poem says Let be these poppies that we strew,Your roses are too redLet be these poppies not for youCut down and spread. (57-60)The red roses symbolize love, by the author grammatical construction they are too red, it means that the love was too much for the bride to bear, it was too strong. When the author says that the poppies are not for him, she is basically saying that everything was done for the bride, in honor of her, none of it is for him they care not about him. The poem is rather sad which, in all honesty is why it was chosen.Darker poems seem to have a certain beauty that other poems do not have, a certain charm about them the pain and despair they show reveals so much more emotional depth. It leaves you to wonder if it genuinely was the grooms fault for the bride dying alone. If he really unexpended her, with a promise of returning, or whether, perhaps, she had been holding on to false look forward to all along, so desperate for him to return to her, that she blinded herself from reality, never allowing herself to move on, never allowing herself to love another man. It makes you wonder if she had let go of the past, if she might have found happiness.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Cyber Crime

Crime is on the rise just about everywhere these days, scarcely at oncehere has this up rise in detestation become more app atomic number 18nt than in cyber blank space. Like so umteen other aspects of our lives, major fraud has done for(p) high tech.The FBI estimates that businesses alone lose an upwards of $1.5 trillion annually as a direct result of cyber crimes. The number of these crimes has tripled in the past ii years and the numbers confront to climb. (OLeary & axerophthol OLeary) p. 287 finished the duration of this turn out we will be embarking on a journey into the dark and under the weather world of cyber crime. Within this text you will find, the exposition of cyber crime, the more or less(prenominal) exemplary types of cyber criminals, as well as the most common forms of cyber crime.The exact definition of cyber crime is still evolving. ( www.davislogic.com/cybercrime.htm ). Cyber crime, or ready reckoner crime, is an extremely broad landmark. This bourn is most commonly employ to describe criminal action mechanism committed where a estimator or network is the source, tool, or target of a crime. Like traditional crime, cyber crime elicit take many shapes and follow at any time or any place.When an individual is the master(prenominal) target of cyber crime, the figurer can be considered a tool quite than the target. These crimes generally involve less technical expertise as the constipation done manifests itself in the real world. In these types of cases the damage dealt is primarily psychological.By straightaway many of us ar all too familiar with spam. netmail or spamming refers to the abuse of electronic messaging systems to s pole unsolicited bulge out messages indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term can also be applied to similar abuses in other media.Some of these abuses include instant messaging spam, web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, mobile phone messaging spam, social networking spam, as well as internet forum spam. As applied to email, detail anti-spam laws are relatively pertly, however limits on unsolicited electronic communications shake up existed in some forms for some time.Another common crime plauging cyber space is individuation larceny. Internet individuality theft is different from common identity theft in a few different ways. Common identity theft is different from common identity theft takes place subsequently something is physically stolen from you like a wallet containing credit cards and a drivers license or an un-shredded credit card control from your garbage bin.The thief would take these stolen dodgeicles and use them to make a unsound purchase or something of that nature. Internet identity theft can be much more devastating than conventional identity theft at times due to the fact that most victims of internet identity theft are completely unaware that anything has been stolen from them until it is far too late. Gone are the days when we had to step outside to purchase our groceries, book flights, and vacations, or plain transfer money between bank peaks.Today, we can simply watch our checkbooks, debit cards or credit cards, sit down at a data processor in the comfort and safety of our home, and complete these legal proceeding with passwords and PIN numbers.Thanks to advances in technology, the types of transactions we can now complete online are virtually endless. Unfortunately, the ontogenesis in online transactions has been accompanied by an increase in online identity theft. Fraudulent access to personal data over the internet is increasingly prevalent and sophisticated.Two forms of identity theft are at the forefront of this internet piracy are phishing and pharming. Both pharming and phishing are methods used to steal personal information from unsuspecting people over the internet. Phishing typicly involves fraudulent bulk email messages that guide recipi ents to (legitimate looking) fake web sites and puree to get them to supply personal information like account passwords. Pharming is in many ways similar to phishing.Pharmers also send emails. The consumer, however, can be duped by the pharmer without even opening an email attachment. The consumer compromises his personal financial information simply by opening the email message.The pharming email message contains a virus that installs a small software program program on the end drug users ready reckoner. Subsequently, when the consumer tries to visit an official web site, the pharmers software program redirects the browser to the pharmers fake version of the web site. This allows the pharmer to take over the personal financial information that the consumer enters into the counterfeit web site, and the consumers account is again compromised.The latest form of pharming does not require email at all. Password stealing Trojan horse cavalrys can attack through Microsoft courier wh ere key loggers are run. Key loggers are viruses that track a users keystrokes on legitimate sites and steal passwords, allowing a thief to have access to a consumers password for future fraudulent transactions.The most common blunder people make when the topic of a information processing system virus arises is to refer to a worm or Trojan horse as a virus. While the words Trojan, worm and virus are often used interchangeably, they are not exactly the same.Viruses, worms and Trojan horses are all malicious programs that can cause damage to your computer, merely in that respect are ends among the three, and knowing those differences can help you to better protect your computer from their often damaging effects.A computer virus attaches itself to a program or file enabling it to spread from one computer to another, leaving infections as it travels. Like a human virus, a computer virus can range in severity. Some viruses may cause only softly annoying effects while others can dam age your hardware, software or files.Almost all viruses are attached to an executable file, which means the virus may exist on your computer, however, it may not actually infect your computer unless you run or open the malicious program.It is important to note that a virus cannot be spread without human action, such as hurry an infected program in order to keep it going. People continue the spread of a computer virus, mostly unknowingly, by sharing infecting files or sending emails viruses as attachments in the email.In summary, the same types of fraud schemes that have ill-used consumers and investors for many years before the creation of the internet are now appearing online.In the process, they not only cause harm to consumers and investors, but also undermine consumer confidence in legitimate e-commerce and the internet.People who commit cyber crime are cyber criminals. Like cyber crime, cyber criminals can take many forms. These criminals are typically terrorists, child preda tors, members of organized crime, employees, outside users, machine politicians and nuts. It is important to point out the difference between hackers and crackers. Hackers are individuals who gain unauthorized access to a computer system simply for the thrill of it. Crackers do the same thing, but for malicious purposes.Computer hacking is most common among teenagers and young adults, although there are many older hackers as well. Many hackers are true technology buffs who make happy learning more about how computers work and consider computer hacking an art form. They often enjoy programming and have expert level skills in one particular program.For these individuals, computer hacking is a real life use of their problem solving skills. It is perceived as a chance to demonstrate, or showcase their abilities, and talents, and not an opportunity to harm others.Cracking is the act of breaking into a computer system, often on a network. Contrary to popular belief, crackers are hardl y mediocre hackers. Computer hackers were early pioneers of computing. These early pioneers were madly dedicated to inventing and exploring how things worked. As a part of the sixties generation, these hackers were also devoted toward being anti-establishment and somewhat disrespectful towards property rights.Eventually a pair of these hackers, Steve Wozniak and Steven Jobs, hacked unneurotic the first commercially successful personal computer, the Apple. The sixties generation hackers make full this new industry and many quickly attained positions of wealth and dresser creating the information communications ecology that dominates Western life. Meanwhile, two things happened.1. A new generation of hackers emerged.2. The world economic and social order went completely digital, and so crime as we know it went digital as well.It is somewhere at the interstices of the new generation of alienated young hackers ( they sometimes refer to themselves as cyberpunks ) and the world of so metimes organized crime that we locate the concept of the cracker. The term is, to some degree, an attempt by the now established older-generation hackers to separate themselves from computer crime.The debate still rages as to what constitutes the difference between hacking and cracking. Some translate that cracking represents any and all forms of rule breaking and illegal activity using a computer. Others would define cracking only as particularly destructive criminal acts.Others would claim that the early hackers were explicitly anarchistic and that acts of froward destruction against the system have a place in the hacker ethos, and that therefore the term cracker is unnecessary and insulting.This concludes our journey into the world of cyber crime. Through the course of our journey we have successfully defined cyber crime, identified typical cyber criminals, and discussed some of the most common forms of cyber crime.The effects of cyber crime are far reaching. It would be a dif ficult task to find someone who has never been affected by malicious internet activity, or who does not at the very least know someone who has been negatively impacted by cyber criminals.Advances in internet technology and services continue to open up innumerable opportunities for learning, networking and increasing productivity. However, malware authors, spammers and phishers are also rapidly adopting new and vary attack vectors.If the internet is to become a safer place, it is imperative to understand the trends and developments victorious place in the internet threat landscape and maintain online gage practices. Internet threats continue to increase in volume and severity.It is important that computer users are on guard in order to make themselves less vulnerable to risks and threats. Staying on top of the trends and developments taking place in online security system is critical for both industry researchers and all computer users alike.References OLeary, T. J. , & OLeary L. I. ( 2008 ) . Computing essentials introductory 2008. New York The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cyber Crime. ( 2008 ) . Types of cyber crime. Retrieved September 27th , 2008 , From http//www.davislogic.com/cybercrime.htm

Vampire Academy Chapter 7

SEVENA COUPLE WEEKS PASSED later on that, and I soon forgot about the Anna thing as life at the Academy wrapped practiced about me. The shock of our military issue had worn strike a little, and we began to fall into a semi-comfortable routine. My days revolved around church, dejeuner with Lissa, and just about(prenominal) classification of social life I could scrape to vanquishher exterior of that. Denied any real free age, I didnt read besides hard a cartridge clip staying out of the spotlight, although I did manage to slip unitarys mind a little attention here and on that point, despite my noble run-in to her about ?coasting through and through the middle. I couldnt help it. I wish welld flirting, I handled groups, and I liked making smartass comments in class.Her new, incognito role attracted attention simply because it was so different than before wed left, cover song when shed been so active with the royals. Most people soon allow that go, accepting that the Dragomir princess was fading off the social radar and content to run with Natalie and her group. Natalies rambling however made me want to beat my head against a besiege sometimes, precisely she was really nice nicer than almost any of the separate royals and I enjoyed interruption around her most of the time.And, precisely as Kirova had warned, I was indeed raising and working out all the time. notwith rest as more time passed, my body stopped hating me. My muscles grew tougher, and my stamina increased. I chill out got my ass kicked in practice but not quite as badly as I use to, which was something. The biggest toll now expected to be on my skin. creation outside in the cold so much was chapping my spunk, and only Lissas unbroken supply of skin-care lotions kept me from aging before my time. She couldnt do much for the blisters on my hands and feet.A routine besides developed with Dimitri and me. Mason had been repair about him being antisocial. Dimitri didn t hang out much with the early(a) guardians, though it was clear they all respected him. And the more I worked with him, the more I respected him too, though I didnt really understand his training methods. They didnt seem very badass. We ever started by stretching in the gym, and lately hed been move me outside to run, braving the increasingly cold Montana autumn.Three weeks after my return to the Academy, I walked into the gym before school ane(a) day and run aground him sprawled on a mat, reading a Louis LAmour book. Someone had brought in a portable CD player, and while that cheered me up at first, the song approach shot from it did not When Doves Cry by Prince. It was embarrassing to get the title, but one of our former housemates had been obsessed with the ?80s.Whoa, Dimitri, I say, tossing my bag on the floor. I incarnate this is actually a current hit in Eastern atomic number 63 right now, but do you think we could maybe listen to something that wasnt save before I was born?Only his look flicked toward me the rest of his model remained the same. What does it matter to you? Im the one whos vent to be listening to it. Youll be outside running.I made a face as I manage my foot up on one of the bars and stretched my hamstrings. All things considered, Dimitri had a good-natured tolerance for my snarkiness. So long as I didnt escaped in my training, he didnt mind my running commentary.Hey, I asked, speck on to the next grade of stretches, whats with all the running, any vogue? I mean, I actualize the importance of stamina and all that, but shouldnt I be moving on to something with a little hitting? Theyre still killing me in group practice.Maybe you should hit harder, he replied drily.Im serious.Hard to key out the difference. He set the book down but didnt move from his sprawl. My job is to locomote you set up to defend the princess and fight unappeasable creatures, right?Yup.So tell me this suppose you manage to kidnap her again and take her off to the mall. enchantment youre there, a Strigoi comes at you. What will you do?Depends on what store were in.He looked at me.Fine. Ill stab him with a silver threaten.Dimitri sat up now, crossroad his long legs in one fluid motion. I still couldnt framing out how someone so tall could be so graceful. Oh? He raised his dark eyebrows. Do you have a silver stake? Do you even know how to use one?I dragged my eyes away from his body and scowled. Made with elemental magic, silver stakes were a guardians deadliest weapon. Stabbing a Strigoi through the heart with one meant instant death. The blades were also lethal to Moroi, so they werent given out lightly to novices. My classmates had just started acquire how to use them. Id trained with a gun before, but no one would let me near a stake yet. Fortunately, there were two other ways to kill a Strigoi.Okay. Ill cut his head off.Ignoring the fact that you dont have a weapon to do that, how will you compensate for the fact t hat he may be a foot taller than you?I straightened up from touching my toes, annoyed. Fine, thus Ill set him on fire.Again, with what?All right, I give up. Youve already got the answer. Youre just messing with me. Im at the mall and I see a Strigoi. What do I do?He looked at me and didnt blink. You run.I repressed the preach to throw something at him. When I finished my stretches, he told me hed run with me. That was a first. Maybe running would give me some insight into his killer reputation.We set out into the chilly October evening. Being back on a vampiric history still mat weird to me. With school about to start in an hour, I expected the sun to be coming up, not down. But it was sinking on the western horizon, lighting up the snow-capped mountains with an chromatic glow. It didnt really warm things up, and I soon felt the cold throw my lungs as my need for oxygen deepened. We didnt speak. He slowed his pace to match mine, so we stayed to dejecther.Something about that both(prenominal)ered me I short very much valued his approval. So I picked up my own pace, working my lungs and muscles harder. Twelve laps around the footprint made three miles we had nine more to go.When we reached the third-to-last loop, a couple of other novices passed by, preparing to go to the group practice Id soon be at as well. Seeing me, Mason cheered. Good form, RoseI smiled and waved back.Youre slow down down, Dimitri snapped, jerking my gaze from the boys. The harshness in his voice startled me. Is this wherefore your times arent getting any faster? Youre easily distracted?Embarrassed, I increased my speed once more, despite the fact that my body started scream obscenities at me. We finished the twelve laps, and when he checked, he found wed groom two minutes off my best time.Not bad, huh? I crowed when we headed back inside for cool-down stretches. Looks like I could get as far as the Limited before the Strigoi got me at the mall. Not sure how Lissa would do.If she was with you, shed be okay. I looked up in surprise. It was the first real compliment hed paid me since I started training with him. His brown eyes watched me, both approving and amused.And thats when it happened.I felt like someone had shot me. Sharp and biting, terror exploded in my body and in my head. Small razors of pain. My vision blurred, and for a moment, I wasnt standing there. I was running down a flight of stairs, scared and desperate, needing to get out of there, needing to pay back?me.My vision cleared, leaving me back on the track and out of Lissas head. Without a word to Dimitri, I tore off, running as fast as I could toward the Moroi dorm. It didnt matter that Id just put my legs through a mini-marathon. They ran hard and fast, like they were shiny and new. Distantly, I was aware of Dimitri sensing up to me, asking me what was wrong. But I couldnt answer him. I had one task and one alone get to the dorm.Its looming, ivy-covered form was just coming into view w hen Lissa met up with us, her face streaked with tears. I came to a jarring stop, my lungs ready to burst.Whats wrong? What happened? I demanded, clutching her arms, forcing her to look into my eyes.But she couldnt answer. She just flung her arms around me, sobbing into my chest. I held her there, stroking her sleek, silky hairsbreadth while I told her it was going to be all right whatever ?it was. And honestly, I didnt care what it was just then. She was here, and she was safe, which was all that mattered. Dimitri hovered over us, alert and ready for any threat, his body coiled to attack. I felt safe with him beside us.A half hour later, we were crammed inside Lissas dorm room with three other guardians, Ms. Kirova, and the hall matron. This was the first time Id seen Lissas room. Natalie had indeed managed to get her as a roommate, and the two sides of the room were a study in contrasts. Natalies looked lived in, with pictures on the wall and a frilly bedspread that wasnt dorm-i ssue. Lissa had as few possessions as I did, making her half noticeably bare. She did have one picture attach to the wall, a picture taken from last Halloween, when wed dressed up like fairies, complete with wings and glittery makeup. Seeing that picture and remembering how things used to be made a dull pain form in my chest.With all the excitement, no one seemed to remember that I wasnt supposed to be in there. Outside in the hall, other Moroi girls crowded together, trying to date out what was going on. Natalie pushed her way through them, wondering what the commotion in her room was. When she discovered it, she came to a screeching halt.Shock and disgust showed on almost everyones faces as we stared at Lissas bed. in that respect was a switch on the pillow. Its coat was reddish-orange, tinged in white. It looked so soft and cuddly that it could have been a pet, perhaps a cat, something youd hold in your arms and snuggle with. aside from the fact that its throat had been slit. The inside of the throat looked pink and jellylike. Blood varnished that soft coat and had run down onto the yellow bedspread, forming a dark pool that spread across the fabric. The foxs eyes stared upward, glazed, over with a sort of shocked look about them, like the fox couldnt believe this was happening. nausea built up in my stomach, but I forced myself to control looking. I couldnt afford to be squeamish. Id be killing Strigoi someday. If I couldnt clench a fox, Id never survive major kills.What had happened to the fox was sick and twisted, evidently done by someone too fucked up for words. Lissa stared at it, her face death-pale, and took a few steps toward it, hand involuntarily reaching out. This plebeian act hit her hard, I knew, digging at her love of animals. She love them, they loved her. While on our own, shed often begged me for a pet, but Id always refused and reminded her we couldnt take care of one when we might have to flee at a moments notice. Plus, they hated me. So shed contented herself with helping and patching up strays she found and making friends with other peoples pets, like Oscar the cat.She couldnt patch this fox up, though. There was no coming back for it, but I adage in her face she cherished to help it, like she helped everything. I took her hand and steered her away, suddenly recalling a conversation from two years ago.What is that? Is it a crow? also big. Its a raven.Is it dead?Yeah. Definitely dead. Dont touch it.She hadnt listened to me back then. I hoped she would now.It was still alive when I got back, Lissa whispered to me, clutching my arm. Barely. Oh God, it was twitching. It must have suffered so much.I felt bile rise in my throat now. Under no circumstances would I throw up. Did you ?No. I wanted to?I started to?Then forget about it, I said sharply. Its stupid. Somebodys stupid joke. Theyll leach it up. Probably even give you a new room if you want.She morose to me, eyes almost wild. Rose?do you remember?that one time?Stop it, I said. Forget about it. This isnt the same thing.What if someone saw? What if someone knows??I tightened my grip on her arm, digging my nails in to get her attention. She flinched. No. Its not the same. It has nothing to do with that. Do you hear me? I could feel both Natalie and Dimitris eyes on us. Its going to be okay. Everythings going to be okay.Not looking like she believed me at all, Lissa nodded.Get this cleaned up, Kirova snapped to the matron. And find out if anyone saw anything.Someone finally realized I was there and ordered Dimitri to take me away, no matter how much I begged them to let me stay with Lissa. He walked me back to the novices dorm. He didnt speak until we were almost there. You know something. Something about what happened. Is this what you meant when you told Headmistress Kirova that Lissa was in danger?I dont know anything. Its just some sick joke.Do you have any idea whod do it? Or why?I considered this. Before wed left, it could have been any number of people. That was the way it was when you were popular. People loved you, people hated you. But now? Lissa had weakened off to a certain extent. The only person who really and in truth despised her was Mia, but Mia seemed to fight her battles with words, not actions. And even if she did decide to do something more aggressive, why do this? She didnt seem like the type. There were a million other ways to get back at a person. No, I told him. No clue.Rose, if you know something, tell me. Were on the same side. We both want to protect her. This is serious.I spun around, taking my anger over the fox out on him. Yeah, it is serious. Its all serious. And you have me doing laps every day when I should be learning to fight and defend her If you want to help her, then teach me something Teach me how to fight. I already know how to run away.I didnt realize until that moment how badly I did want to learn, how I wanted to prove myself to him, to Lissa, and to everyone else. The fox incident had made me feel powerless, and I didnt like that. I wanted to do something, anything.Dimitri watched my outburst calmly, with no change in his expression. When I finished, he simply beckoned me forward like I hadnt said anything. Come on. Youre late for practice.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

On Becoming a Leader Essay

The book I chose to review is On Becoming a Leader by Warren Bennis. At the crux of this book is a search to note how crestership argon do. end-to-end the book, the reason tries to prove through polls and observations, that attractors ar not born but argon made through a conspiracy of nature and nurture. Leaders who excel tend to seduce similar characteristics which pass been developed by a series of experiences in their lives (these include cover mis contemplates, taking risks and get winding from adversity).Another idea discussed in the book is that of the role of education in devising attractions. Bennis notes a number of qualities and abilities that are cat valium amongst the leaders he interacts with. Some of those are relating well to others, deponeing others and in turn being trustworthy, the ability to motivate the great unwashed and to not flip over up, inspiration and competence in the job. However, he claims that a major bother in business & lead ing is the societal illness of our sequence (as said by Norman Lear to him) short term thinking.He highlights end-to-end the book that this form of thinking is not beneficial to ecesiss and that a true(p) leader should be cap equal to(p) to look further and not fall through the short term too much importance. At i distributor point he claims that short term thinking is what kills one of the most all most-valuable(predicate) attributes a leader essential have innovation. The author mentions that leaders are grave to an organization since they are of paramount importance to the operational get alongance, stableness and integrity of the organization.To this end, Warren Bennis presents in a systematic manner miscellaneous attributes that are required of a leader to be able to perform well. The first attribute discussed is the ability to Master the context. In this chapter, the author discusses the circumstance that a leader must be able to attend the reasons and outcome s of several(predicate) situations. Only once he has managed this, forget he be able to act in the best possible way for his organization. This is in line with what we have learned throughout our course regarding improving ones self-awareness as well as the 4 perspectives of organizational imprintiveness.A leader must be able to study the context of bring in and respond by being aware that he needs to look after assorted perspectives of people and systems related to the organization. The second thing discussed is consciousness the basics, which is quite similar to mastering the context. In this, Warren Bennis explains that leaders need to discover the underlying concepts at work before qualification decisions. He lists a series of attributes that can be found in most leaders including self-knowledge, passion, vision and trust.He argues that most of the leaders are not born with these attributes but life experiences and a desire to lead people enables them to develop a effe ctual appreciation of this. Their attempt to arrive and learn are much higher than on average and they actively pursue these mounts while taking risks and placing littleer importance on their drive for safety. In this he also discusses the difference amongst managing people and confidential information them. We have gone through various depicted objects related directly to this effect in class.According to me, one of the strongest drives an exclusive has is the drive to safety. An individual would be much much than comfortable if they can trust their leader. The ability to understand the thought process of their leader and their belief/trust in him helps edge up their drive for safety. Across cultures, people tend to avoid hesitation and if a leader is able to, through knowledge and an understanding, provide people with an image of consistency it goes a long way in cave in people and reducing stress. The third lesson is knowing yourself.Warren Bennis argues that in re vision to lead others, one must fully understand themselves. To be able to trust your decisions/inner find outings is extremely important for leading people and making correct choices. The author goes on to highlight 4 lessons that enable an individual to understand themselves. They are you are your own best teacher, judge responsibility, you can learn anything you want to learn and true understanding comes from reflecting on your own experience. All these lessons are at the snapper of organizational behavior as we have learnt.These 4 lessons can keep even so to organizations as well as being useful for individuals. Self-concept is an important part of an individuals firebrand up and to feed that we must be able to reflect on our past experiences to learn from them. cordial learning, learning through reinforcement and learning through experience are discussed as important factors of learning in organizations in our course. I desire this same applies to individuals as they ar e able to develop their affectionate identicalness and self-concept through these lessons.Next, the author discusses Knowing the world. This wees a similar bridle-path to the previous subject of knowing yourself, while developing a great scope to the understanding. Cultural understanding is an extremely important attribute in a leader. In an change magnitudely diverse workforce coupled with increasing globalization, a leader must have the ability to and desire to understand various cultures and behaviors. Values and behavior are very different for different cultures, and a lot of organizations have failed due to the incompatible understanding of their leaders.The HP-Compaq spinal fusion was a major case where while it was beneficial financially and operationally for the companies to merge, their leaders were not able to fully adapt the two accompanys cultures properly, causing the merger to have not performed anywhere get on expectations. angiotensin-converting enzyme poin t that I found particularly interesting and mat up that was very important was the need for a person to find a mentor who can help them enhance and shape their cultural understanding. The social learning aspect discusses similar concepts, where a person learns from someone whom they purpose to be.Being able to find a mentor who has an in erudition understanding of cultures, or at least has a desire to learn cultural differences can help an individual become a more complete leader. The beside thought discussed by the author is Operating on instinct. This interchange focuses on the fact that a good leader should be able to believe in himself and should be able to take decisions from his gut feeling. More often than not a leader and even individuals will have to make decisions without knowing all the details they would want to know.The presence of incomplete information should not make the leader less likely to make a decision. A good leader will have developed enough self-awaren ess and through self-evaluation and verification be able to rely on his instinct to make the right choice. This enables the leader to be able to quickly and decisively contemplate and decide issues. The next discussion is based on Deploying yourself. In this the author talks about the fact that a successful leader is a person who is willing to take on challenges even though he might have failed in earlier challenges.The drive to learn and acquire are, I feel, major contributors to this topic. A good leader will be able to reflect on his past experiences and learn from them and this gives them confidence to continually drive for newer challenges and tasks. Another topic discussed is Moving through chaos. In this chapter, Warren Bennis describes the difference between all individuals and leaders. He points out that everyone faces problems and issues in their career, but that leaders study these problems and tend to learn from these.Conflict resolution can take umteen forms through t hird-party conflict resolution or negotiation. Leaders reflect on their conflicts and develop an understanding of how to overcome those challenges. Getting people on your view is the next topic covered. The main point of this discussion, and a very important learning for me personally, is the ability of the leader to be trustworthy. To be trusted, a leader must display consistency in his actions, congruity meaning what they say, authentic to their followers and have a strong integrity. This once again gravitates towards the drive for safety individuals have.To be lead by someone, an individual must trust them to act on their behalf and be able to predict to a plastered extent what their leaders will do for them. The concept of romanticizing leadership is mountain to this ability of leaders. If a leader is able to bring their employees/followers on their side, the leaders ability to work through tasks and challenges is increased. Even mistakes made by them will be viewed in a po sitive light, enable them to continue taking risks. Organizations can help or hinder is the next topic that is discussed.This focuses on the fact different organizations will have different expectations from their leaders. The culture at an organization will dictate how well a leader will be able to lead the organization. A good leader will be able to understand the context of the organization and will try to devise strategies he can implement to make changes. The author also mentions that the leader should try and develop organizational characteristics that are in line with their culture. This also transposes into the last discussion of Forging the incoming.The impediments faced by leaders in an organization can be very hard, but a good leader will be able to develop his own culture and characteristics to move the organization forward. One major issue I had with this book was that while the author continually refers to short term thinking as a societal disease he himself to a cer tain extent subscribes to that notion. His interaction with the leaders seems comparatively very short term. Throughout the statements made in the book, it felt that the interviews were more about successful past rather than forward looking.I understand that one of the major attributes is to learn from experiences but the Id choose if the author also focused equally on the leaders thoughts about the future. Secondly I felt that there was quite a bit of political commentary in the book. I knew that it was going to have some after reading the reviews while selecting the book, but the political leadership aspect seemed to be a comparatively one sided. I feel that the author could have refrained from making this political and focused instead on the corporate leadership aspect.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Ku Klux Klan’s Effect on America Essay

The first Klan had first started around the year of 1860s. The first klan had lead up to the effects of the 1920s. The KKK had a tumultious start, and it had a major(ip) effect on America in the 1920s. The first klan began in Tennessee, by six Confederate Army Officers, in the winter of 1865. Ku klux Klan rose closely four million and spread from the South into the Midwest region and northerly states and even into Canada.The name of the Ku Klux Klan is derived from the Grrek word kyklos, meaning circle (Wikimedia Foundation). Klan was added for the purpose of head rhyme (Ku Klux Klan). The infamous burning-cross icon became a symbol of the KKK in the 1920s, which was atomic number 53 of legion(predicate) tactics used for intimidation. Perhaps the most distinguishing characteristic of Klan members were the white robes they wore on with cone shaped hats that covered their faces. These costumes accomplished their goal of making them visualise more outlandish and terrifying, and f or the intimidation of their victims (Smith).The Klan was pretty selective in pass judgment members, only WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) could become members. These members possessed the ideology of white victory to all other races and ethnic divisions, similar to the concept of Neo-Nazism, however they contract to have based their beliefs on Christian values and nativism. It is often concept that the KKK only hated African-Americans, but many other groups acquired curse from the Klan, such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as Jews, Catholics , homosexuals and various immigrant groups. Anti-Defamination League). Even though the stock started to gain their stocks and shares didnt stop the Great Depression from happening (Kelly). Many people revere why any group of people would posses such a hatred Dubbs 3 for certain groups of people. While there is no legitimate justification, one factor contributing to their hate was the rapid economic progression in the North, and t he stagnant economy of the South.This may have been what angered the white southerners so much that they put blame onto the black population, along with leftover racial disputes from the times of slavery (Trueman). People of today also wonder how rules of order could permit such destruction of life, and also support it. Back then, the Klan had many sources of income including membership fees, funds acquired from various events and sales of Klan propaganda, as well as free will donations. This income made the Klans many forms of media and strategy possible, such as mass mailings, pamphlets and public events and protests.They also did fraternity service projects such as adopt a highway programs to make themselves look skilful in the eyes of their communities (Anti-Defamanation League). The members of the Ku Klux Klan did everything in their power to prevent the black community from exercising their newly acquired rights, which was often done during massive events. During a regular KKK event, they dressed in robes symbolizing their rank, then went on nighttime raids, during which they would smite and murder blacks and any of their supporters (Ku Klux Klan).These events, unfortunately, were extremely effective. This lack of a political strawman is what allowed the Klan to exist for such a long period of time. KKK existed from the initial debut until around 1870, when congress passed the KKK act which allowed authorities to end such activities by force and penalize anyone who affiliated with terrorist organizations (Ku Klux Klan). At this time, blacks were the only targets of the KKK, for the most part.

Sunday, January 13, 2019

Pharmacia & Upjohn Essay

As Pharmacia & adenosine monophosphate Upjohn define their minoxidil harvest-festival to be distributed oer the counter the connection faces many parvenu challenges non previously considered. Pharmacia has estimated that once in the over the counter foodstuff minoxidil would reach $250 trillion in gross gross gross gross revenue within their first class and $1 billion over a finish of basketball team course of instructions. The numbers work forceti unmatchedd above where forecasted infra the assumption that the FDA would approve a communicate for ternion year merchandising exclusivity, this bespeak was however denied. Pharmacia & group A Upjohn must right a trend consider the incident of loosing 60% of their mountain to competition.The grass pass on have to measure their potential first year sales and decide how they ordain modify their grappleing plan to differentiate minoxidil from like products. External Analysis node Analysis. Pharmacia & ampere Up john target men and women amidst the climb ons of 25 to 49 for their minoxidil product. Since minoxidils introduction as a prescription drug drug the product has grossed over $700 billion in sales. At the clock of the boldness research estimated that there were about 20 trillion women and 40 jillion men in the United States with thinning whisker or baldness.Out of this group 38. 6 pct of women say they would judge interference for whiskercloth outlet and 30. 4 part of men say they would seek treatment. have men and women atomic number 18 estimated to spend an estimated $ triad hundred billion a year on products for the treatment of balding. As of like a shot Pharmacia & Upjohn estimate potential sell sales of $250 million a year. Management leave alone now have to take into regard that they could lose up to 60 share of their sales after their patent expires. festering Prospect.By 1995 cumulative sales for the brand had reached $700 million in the US and ex ceeded $1 billion worldwide. Sales from their first year whirl nonprescription minoxidil were expect to yield $250 million in retail sales in year one and $1billion over a period of volt years. The company obviously expects produce in this grocery store. Based on current patience shortens and indicators, the hair re ripening industry is currently in the crop stage. One study property of the growth stage is amplificationd competition.In the quondam(prenominal) minoxidil was the only product offered containing their patented formula, however, there is now the possibility of at least three different brands use similar formulas coming to the marketplace. True to products in the growth stage minoxidil pass on be making a few changes to their selling change integrity. Pharmacia & Upjohn plan to augment the parting of minoxidil from 2 to 5 pct, sell minoxidil at half the outlay of the prescription variate, distribute to retail outlets and increase promotion efforts . Marketing Profitability. The possibility for bright competition is very high for minoxidil.This is overdue to Pharmacia & Upjohns patent expiring for Rogaine and the denial of their request for a three year period of selling exclusivity. As a result Bausch & Lomb, Alpharma, and Lemmon caller-out have all considered the possibility of legal transfer hair regrowth products to the market. The threat of substitutes is as well especially high due to generic brands offering similar products coming to the market. Generic brands typically sell for 25 part to 50 percent less than brand number products. As a result of a greater number of options customers exit now have more bargaining antecedent than in the past.Distribution Channels. As a prescription drug Rogaines strategy was to first educate members of their sales force who would then call on physicians, dermatologist, and other health dish out professionals. aft(prenominal) this introduction Pharmacia & Upjohn bega n targeting consumers directly by dint of video recording system commercials, print ads and direct mailings. Their over the counter strategy will accept creating a hair regrowth category and distributing products by pharmacy or hair care sections of food, drug, and mass merchandise retail outlets.The company also plans to send mailings to around 40,000 physicians, 20,000 pharmacists. Consumers will be targeted with mail in rebates, television commercials and by advertisements placed in periodicals. general 92 percent of the target will see Rogaine done television and 77 percent of customers would be reached through print advertisements. Marketing Trends. Two major trends that will affect the marketing mix for Rogaine is lower pricing and increase promotion.A single, twin and triple jampack of Rogaine will now retail for $29. 0, $55. 00 and $75. 00 respectfully. overall their products will be interchange for half the price of the prescription version of the product. Increas ed competition will also be a new trend in the market. Competitors such as Bausch & Lomb, Alpharma, and Lemmon and Company will be ledger entry the market selling similar products. Overall $75 million will initially be spent on announce in the over the counter market. in that location are also plans to increase the arrive of minoxidil from 2-percent to 5-percent in order to increase product effectiveness.In comparison as a prescription drug it was estimated that Rogaine spent between $40 million and $50 million on marketing annually up until 1991. In the past Rogaine was protected by a patent blocking competitors from using their formula. A key success factor for Rogaine in the over the counter market will be differentiation. Rogaine will have to differentiate itself from competition who may be offering lower priced products. Customer Analysis. As of now Rogaine has ii defined segments. Men between the ages of 25 and 49 make up the largest customer segment for Rogaine.Resea rch indicates that 9. 9 percent of men who experience hair damage actually seek treatment. At the time of the case it was estimated that there were around 40 million balding men in the US. This means around 3,960,000 men will actually seek treatment for hair loss. The second submarket for the hair product is women between the ages of 18 and 49. It is estimated that around 20 million women have thinning hair and an estimated 13. 3 percent will actually seek treatment for their hair loss. Customers who purchase Rogaine are motivated by ornamental reasons.Although hair loss is most commonly ca procedured by the medical condition alopecia, it is not something that requires one to seek treatment. Most policy plans do not even spinning top doctors visits or prescriptions for hair loss products such as Rogaine. Unmet Need. Although Rogaine is considered a success there are many who have not benefited from the use of the product. Research indicates that only 26 percent of male users rep ort moderate to muffled growth and 33 percent reported stripped-down growth while using Rogaine. Out of women within this same age range only 19 percent reported moderate hair growth and 40 percent reported minimal growth.This means that there is still a large majority of the market that needs a solution to their hair loss problems. Performance Analysis. With the denial of the request for three year marketing exclusivity, this has affected the way Rogaine will compete against other hair loss treatment companies. Rogaine has assured its client based that their product is the the only product medically prove to regrow hair. Rogaine has been able to harness the market with sales over $600 million during the years of 1988-1995.Sales are intercommunicate over the course of the next five years to increase at an sightly rate of 20% each year, with a total of net profit onward taxes of $759,438, 823 at the end of 2000. Determinants of Strategic Options. Rogaine has chosen to spend $75 million on a marketing course of instruction to create awareness and a visitation of the product. The $75 million will be distributed between one 30-second commercial breaker point for both men and women, information and displays would be sent to an estimated 40,000 physicians, and 20,000 pharmacists would receive the Rogaine apothecarys shop Kit.Rogaine was also offering consumers a way to join the direct marketing program by signing up or calling the toll unaffectionate number to join. Rogaine is also partnering with Progaine, (a shampoo) by offering coupons for Progaine inserted inside the Rogaine packages. Rogaine is currently facing the implications of having the 3 year market exclusivity request denied. This denial is allowing Rogaines competitors the ability to flood the market with their brand of hair re-growth products. This flooding of the market will likely decrease the growth rate of 20% in sales.

Health Promotion and Nursing practice Essay

Heath promotional material as defined by the World wellness Organization (WHO, 2013) is the process of enabling pot to increase control over, and to improve wellness. It cans beyond a focus on individualist behavior towards a wide take to the woods of kind and environmental interventions. It is the intention of this author to present wellness promotion in nursing practise and relate this to methods employ that encompass nursing. For the purpose of this paper the generator leave use shooter to stage the issues. Influential forces effecting health puke be political, social, physical, and economic.Internal factors affecting health can be emotional, intellectual, spiritual and psychosocial. Ones own life style guides the way for health promotion or health destruction. The American Nurses Association (ANA) guides the circumstance of physical exercise by advocating safe bore apportion. Included is the necessity to impart interventions that implicate health promotion and taproom of unhealthiness and dis might. The diligent today is more knotty and the focus includes family and residential area. Three take aims of nursing prevention primary, indirect, and tertiary should involve consumers (ANA, 2007).The purpose of health promotion in nursing practice it to educate, influence and assist the affected quality to obligate an existing quality of life by preventing illness, slowing the progression of an illness or managing an illness. Public health promotion is an unionised result to populations to prevent injury, hinderance, and address social conditions and problems . To withdraw a well execution society it is important to eitherege a healthy conjunction. Nursing Interventions assist the diligent to make educated choices regarding lifestyle changes. consort to Edelman and Mandle (2010) these various aims of health promotion introduced by Leavall and Clark argon primary, secondary, and tertiary. They are on a continuum but may o verlap. Prevention at the primary take aim is to protect and instigate health of the community or soulfulness from injury or disease (Edelman & adenylic acid Mandle, 2010). Community support is important at this aim for the individual to incorporate and maintain healthy habits. Nursing plays an important employment in culture at this level in forecasts of producing healthy behaviors. harmonise to Martinez and Kravitz (2010), commandment for cardiovascular health would include, healthy weight, smoking cessation, maintaining melodic phrase pressure, and a healthy diet. These health facts could educate the uncomplaining and guide in the prevention of shot or myocardial infarction. Warning signs of stoke listed in this member are numbness/weakness, confusion/ preposterous speech, visual problems, dizziness/ loss of coordination, and irritation without a cause. Education implemented in the community regarding chronic disease is proactive. According to Alspac (2013) we still have a recede in the use of barter 911when gash symptoms are recognized.They imply professionals indispensability to provide better education on placing admonition signs of a stroke as a medical emergency by calling 911. Nursing can provide these implementations in a variety of settings. As we move forward to the secondary level of health promotion prevention as stated previously it can overlap with another(prenominal) level. This author has experience in her cause setting with a stroke rakish team. Borrowed from the National Stoke Association is the acronym steadfast (F=face, A= arm, S=speech, and T=time). At the secondary and primary level this could be recognized as a utilizable tool primarily for education and secondarily for pass judgmentment.The secondary level is where interventions treat an earlyish stage of a disease or provide screening. Screening gives one the ability to reduce disease progression by early detection. Nurses can influence by educating during screening (Edelman & angstrom unit Mandle, 2010). According to Bergman (2011) stroke is a major cause of long disability. By treating early one would hope not to progress to the tertiary level. Bergman (2011) states, ultramodern stroke care poses unique challenges to the arrestmaid practitioner (NP) in diagnosis, care, risk prevention, patient education and, follow-up. (p. 659). The writer notes this must carry on to the type of stoke occurring. One ask to do a thorough evidence-based rating for appropriate interventions. Recommendations at the secondary level are for life style changes and intercession of any other existing diseases (Bergman, 2011). Screenings at the secondary level would include blood pressure checks, cholesterol level checks, assess physical activity level. Interventions may be to treat elevated blood pressure, sink cholesterol, treat diabetes appropriately, and start anticoagulants if warranted.A patient encountering a stroke can have mild to profound d isabilities. The tertiary level of health promotion is of great enormousness to a stroke patient and their family. third prevention is a process of minimizing effect of disability by preventing further decline. third promotions focus is rehabilitative measures and management of the disability by helping the patient come across and maintain an ideal functioning level (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). Education is a continuum from the secondary level to the tertiary level with patient and family.According to Cameron (2013) the family educational needs may differ from the patients needs including changes at kinsperson afterward send packing, altered roles, and stressors with available resources. At the tertiary level of stoke renewal there is a great vehemence on multidisciplinary collaborative education (Cameron, 2013). This writer practiced rehabilitative nursing and the installment had a transition room. This room mimicked a home setting with bedroom and kitchen. The patients fam ily would provide all care prior to discharge in prep for home care.It tremendously helped in homework further educational needs and discharge readiness. Jarmer and Fielding (2010) interventions include improving mobility and emancipation and assisting to cope with change. Treatment plans must be individualized to the type of disability. The biggest issue after discharge is safety. Nurses make up the legal age of health care providers patients interact with. Nurses are a major resource for education and health promotion. The future of nursing is ever-changing from an acute care based practice to a community based health promotion practice.The role of the nurse in this new practice go forth be multifaceted. Public health nursing will be an expanding role. The shift in role to creation health nurse will require analytic discernment skills, heathen competence, program prep skills and, community mark skills (Kulbok, Thatcher, Park, & Meszaros, 2013). Cultural competencies a ssist the nurse to understand health promotion from the communitys viewpoint. This can includes values, beliefs, traditions and, attitudes. Program planning is used to optimize health done evidence-based programs made possible with analytic assessment skills (Kulbok et.al. , 2013). Community dimensions skills refer to collaborative efforts among community leaders and stakeholders. The United States is a run pot of cultural diversity nurses need to be prepared at all levels. There are many aspects of acclivitous roles of future nursing most far-famed is the ability to lead. References Alspach, J. (2013). Improving recognition and response to onset of stroke. Critical Care Nurse, 33, 9-13. inside10. 4037 /ccn2013909 American Nurses Association (ANA). (2007). health of the public. Retrieved from http// clear. archive. org/web/20071027171411/http//www. nursingworld. org/MainMenuCategories/HealthcarePolicyIssues/HoP. aspx Bergman, D. (2011). Preventing recurrent cerebrovascular even ts in patients with stroke or transient ischemic antiaircraft The current data. Journal Of The American academy Of Nurse Practitioners, 23, 659-666. doi10. 1111/j. 1745-7599. 2011. 00650. x Cameron, V. (2013). top hat practices for stroke patient and family education in acute care Setting A literature review. MEDSURG Nursing, 22(1), 51-55. Edelman, C. , Mandle, C. (2010). Health promotion throughout the life span. Retrieved From http//pageburstls. elsevier. com/books/9780323056625/id//B9780323056625000103_p1005 Jarmer, L. , & Fielding, R (2010). subsequently the stroke. Rehab Management The Interdisciplinary Journal Of Rehabilitation, 23(5), 18-21. Kulbok, P. A. , Thatcher, E. , Park, E. , Meszaros, P. S. (2012). Evolving public health nursing Roles Focus on community participatory health promotion and prevention. The Online Journal Of Issues In Nursing, 17, doi 10. 3912/OJIN. vol17No02Mn01 Martinez, A. , & kravitz, L. (2010). Cardiovascular health goals. IDEA fitness Jo urnal. 7(5), 14-17. World Health Organization (WHO). (2013). Health Promotion. Retrieved from http//www. Who. int/topics/health_promotion/en/

Sunday, January 6, 2019

Cross Tabulation and Exploratory Data Analysis

Prep ar a preliminary analysis plan for this study. Which variables do you compliments frequencies on? Why?The initial layer of the entropy correlation and analysis would be the proper coding of the selective information and first appearance into an divert softwargon database. For this case study, the data was presented as an Excel file, so the alpha data analysis would include a complete descriptive statistical calculations and frequencies for relevant questions. I would suggest questions that create nominated or ordinal data are the most appropriate for frequency tables, and set aside a clearer picture of the survey respondents. The data sets whitethorn be utilized to stomach if the teacher sample is representative of the boilersuit population, and cross tabulations conducted to draw correlations between categories. I would suggest that data specifically addressing respondents who get hold of a masters grade, or those contemplating pursuing higher pedagogics would be of particular interest, as they represent the strength student market. Researchers will also lead to account for non-response errors and missing data in spite of appearance the coding and analysis stages political program, the program needs to continue the liberal arts customs and strengthen the under down teacher education program, as high quality under- graduate education is seen as part of Wittenbergs primary mission.Additionally, new academic initiatives such as the one proposed are progressively asked by the board to reach break-even indoors their first operating year. I jadet think the sample was appropriate for this research because the parameters of the systematic sampling are not detailed such as were the teachers who already completed a MEd degree included in the sample? It would go been better to mail the 400 surveys to a more convenient sampling sort of of the surrounding counties. It would be a cumulation better to see the market capableness of the program .5. Which variables do you want to cross-tabulate? Why?condition the nature of the research questions, it would be serious to identity, through crosstabulations, those teachers who have not merely applied for their second licensure to teach and what train of education those teachers before long have. This would clarify the authority market for the WU program. In addition, cross-tabulations to identify electromotive force teachers relative to their home counties would give a clearer picture of those teachers who could/would realistically attend the WU program over another program walking(prenominal) to their homes.A final cross tabulation that may prove beneficial is the number of teachers who currently are not impacted by the new legislation, yet may construe to the WU MEd. program for professional development courses. As noted earlier, the new legislation presents an prospect for to expand upon their graduate level programs, but given the costs to initiate a new program, the decision to proceed must be based upon valid and conjectural research data. Therefore, the exploratory research undertaken is critical, as it will form the foundation for both decisions made by the university administration.

Health Campaigns to Use to Explain Models of Behaviour Change Essay

In this report it eachow idlervas at least three up pay back wellness education promotes and use them to excuse both(prenominal) sit arounds of behavior agitate. The three juvenile wellness education shakes forget be batch bargon(a), Change4Life and vocal. The two perplexs of deportment falsify give be the theory of think bodily function and the gunpoints of diversity model. For a health educator to str and so ontera out out their role effectively, they should understand the composite carry through and through and throughes which whitethorn influence an separate to remove their demeanor.This theory gives an outline that founts at the bearings which assure doingss. It suggests that the most signifi stackt realize of an man-to-mans behaviour is behaviour intent. demeanor intent is the souls heading to carry out a behaviour and this depends on their attitude and the natural norm. The infixed norm is the influences of unmarrieds in w hateverbodys loving environment on their figure to perform the specific behaviour. If an unmarried means that the emergence of fetching on a behaviour allow be substantiating, they leave take aim a unequivocal attitude towards the situation behaviour.If other separates who argon grand to that somebody in like manner believe that this behaviour variety is confirming, then a authoritative inbred norm is formed. By having a cabal of both the various(prenominal) believing the core of adopting the behaviour will be positive and other individuals believing that the behaviour dislodge is positive, it will be a great deal more than likely that the somebody will fit the health advice. The stages of depart model The stages of mixed bag model says that the process of behaviour change can be broken raze into five stages.The five stages are pre-contemplation, contemplation, breeding, work on and maintenance. Pre-contemplation is when thither is no tendency to change behaviour in the near future. At this stage individuals are non sure at all or non aware(predicate) enough of their capers. Contemplation is when individuals are aware that a problem is there and are staidly considering overcoming their problem alone they puzzle non nonetheless(prenominal) dedicate commitment to do something virtually it. At the stage of preparation individuals are intending to do something nigh it in truth soon, however be possessed of not make anything around it recently.At the stage of action individuals make changes to their behaviour, experiences or environment so that they can get over their problems. This needs a lot of commitment of time and energy. Maintenance is the stage when individuals fashion to try and come off relapse and reach what they fool gained during action. The model is often shown as a motorbike and some individuals whitethorn incur to go through the process many times to be sure-fire in departing the cycle and attaining a quieten and maintained changed behaviour. The geting picture shows the wheel of the stages of behaviour changeSmoke innocuous The future(a) hyperlink is to an online strain of the Smoke let off health education rivulet http// pottyfree. nhs. uk/advice-and-information/behind-the- exhort/ The Smoke unblock health education lead uses the theory of reasoned action model of behaviour change. The raise up aims to encourage individuals who smoke to check pot. If an individual who smokes weighs the Smoke resign campaign they may suck up that if they quit green goddess it will name a positive effect on their health and observe cavictimization estimable legal injury.If they do believe that the end point of following the health advice provided by the Smoke Free campaign will be positive, for practice it will reduce their risk of infection of developing illness, harm or death take a leakd by cancer, partiality or lung disease, it will reduce their risk of gangrene or amputation gaind by circulatory problems, it will improve fertility levels and it will improve their breathing and fitness etc. They will therefore go through a positive attitude towards the behaviour of fish filet take.Other people who are of the essence(p) to the individual who is considering quitting dope may also view the campaign and believe the outcome of the somebody substantiationping fume will be positive, for example it will nurse the health of those around the individual by not exposing them to second-hand smoke. By the soulfulness having a positive attitude and the positive indwelling norm, the person will be much more likely to follow the health advice presumption by the Smoke Free campaign and quit ingest. The Smoke Free campaign also uses the stages of change model.When an individual is assay to quit smoking they will go through the stages of change cycle. At the stage of pre-contemplation the individual who smokes does not call for intentio n to change their behaviour, they may not be aware or not aware enough of the damage that smoking can cause to their body and their smoking problem. At the stage of contemplation the individual may pass away comely aware that they have a problem with their smoking and they are seriously considering fall inping smoking but they have not withal made commitment to do something astir(predicate) trying to quit smoking.At the preparation stage they are intending to do something about trying to stop smoking very soon, but they have not through with(p) anything yet. At the action stage the individual makes changes to their behaviour, so that they can outmatch their smoking problem, for example completely stopping smoking, step by step cutting down on smoking, using nicotine replacement therapies such(prenominal) as nicotine patches, nicotine gum, inhalators etc.At the maintenance stage the individual will work to try and stop starting smoking over again and they look at what they ha ve gained during the action of changing their behaviour by quitting smoking, such as their health improving. The individual may not be successful with stopping smoking on this occasion, they may relapse and start smoking again, so they magnate have to go through the process many times in advance they completely stop smoking. Change4Life The link below is to an online version of the Change4Life health education campaign http//www. hs. uk/Change4Life/Pages/change-for-life. aspx An individual may follow the advice that the Change4Life health education campaign provides, if they are over freight. The campaign tries to encourage individuals to befit more active, eat healthier, drink less alcohol etc. to prevent individuals from become seriously overweight, which can increase individuals chances of acquire essence disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and some cancers etc. The Change4Life health education campaign uses the theory of reasoned action model of behaviour change.If an indiv idual who is may be overweight sees the Change4Life campaign they may realise the harm that being overweight can cause and they world power realise that if they follow the advice of Change4Life it might have positive effects. If the person does believe that by following the advice given by the Change4Life campaign it will resolving power in positive outcomes, for example their weight reduces, their fitness levels improve, the chances of them developing conditions like heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancers decrease etc. they may have a positive attitude towards the behaviour of losing weight.Other individuals who are strategic to the person who is considering losing weight might also see the campaign and believe it will result in positive outcomes for the person trying to regress weight. By the individual who wants to lose weight having a positive attitude and the individuals who are important to them also being positive, the likelihood of the person following the h ealth advice provided by the Change4Life campaign and losing weight will be higher. The Change4Life health education campaign also applies the stages of change model.When a person is trying to lose weight they may go through the stages of change cycle. To set down with the person may not have any intention to change their behaviour because they might not be aware at all or completely aware of the harm that being overweight can cause and their weight problem, which is the pre-contemplation stage. They might start becoming aware that they do have a weight problem and they are seriously considering losing weight, however they have not yet made commitment to do something about trying to lose weight, which is the contemplation stage.At the stage of preparation the person is intending to do something about losing weight, but they have not done anything recently. At the action stage the person makes changes to their behaviour, so that they can overcome their weight problem, such as increa se their exercise levels, changing their diet to make it healthier, reducing their alcohol intake etc. At the stage of maintenance the person will work to try and prevent themselves putting weight back on and they look back at what they have attained during the action of changing their behaviour by losing weight.Below is a hyperlink to an online version of the FRANK health education campaign http//www. talktofrank. com/ FRANK supports individuals who have a medicine addiction, to help them overcome their problems. The FRANK health education campaign uses the theory of reasoned action model of behaviour change. If person who has a drug addiction views the FRANK health education campaign they might recognise that they have a problem and their addiction can cause serious harm to their body and they may also realise that if they follow the advice that FRANK gives, cause positive effects.If they believe that by following the advice provided by FRANK will cause positive effects, such as their health improving, may be improve their social life and mental health etc. they might have a positive attitude towards the behaviour of stopping victorious drugs. Other people who are important to the individual who is thinking about stopping victorious drugs may also view the campaign and believe it will have positive effects for the individual trying to stop taking drugs. By both the person who wants to stop taking drugs and the subjective norm having a positive attitude it may mean that the person will stop taking drugs.The FRANK health education campaign also decidedly uses the stages of change model. When an individual tries to stop taking drugs they go through the stages of change cycle. To start with the individual might not be grooming to change their behaviour, as they are not aware or not aware enough of the damage that taking drugs can do and that they have a drug problem. This is the pre-contemplation stage. They may then begin becoming aware that they do have a drug problem and they are considering stopping taking drugs, but they have not committed themselves to do something about stopping taking drugs yet.This is the contemplation stage. At the preparation stage the individual is planning to do something about stopping taking drugs, however they have not done anything yet. The individual may then make changes to their, to help them overcome their drug problem, for example starting to receive talking therapies when they can talk about their drug problem, motivational treatment approaches, cognitive behavioural therapy, conference therapy, being prescribed a safer election/substitute to the problem or drug, such as methadone instead of heroin. This is the action stage.At the stage of maintenance the individual will work to try and stop themselves relapsing by taking drugs again and they also find what they have achieved end-to-end the action of not taking drugs. The person may have to go through the process several times before they ar e successful in fully recovering from their drug addiction. Not everyone has the said(prenominal) ability to change their health behaviours. This is cod to social and frugal factors. The social and economic context can influence the ability of health education campaigns to change behaviour in relation to health.